CODE:Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2006
Author(s): Rishab Ghosh
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: General Topics for Engineers
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Abstract

Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the collaborative model of creativity -- with examples ranging from collective ownership in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome project -- and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity based on strong intellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights, argues Rishab Ghosh in his introduction, were ostensibly developed to increase creativity; but today, policy decisions that treat knowledge and art as if they were physical forms of property actually threaten to decrease creativity, limit public access to creativity, and discourage collaborative creativity. "Newton should have had to pay a license fee before being allowed even to see how tall the 'shoulders of giants' were, let alone to stand upon them," he writes.The contributors to CODE, from such diverse fields as economics, anthropology, law, and software development, examine collaborative creativity from a variety of perspectives, looking at new and old forms of creative collaboration and the mechanisms emerging to study them. Discussing the philosophically resonant issues of ownership, property, and the commons, they ask if the increasing application of the language of property rights to knowledge and creativity constitutes a second enclosure movement -- or if the worldwide acclaim for free software signifies a renaissance of the commons. Two concluding chapters offer concrete possibilities for both alternatives, with one proposing the establishment of "positive intellectual rights" to information and another issuing a warning against the threats to networked knowledge posed by globalization.

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      Front Matter

      Page(s): i - xxii
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Dedication, Contents, Foreword, Preface View full abstract»

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      Why Collaboration Is Important (Again)

      Page(s): 1 - 5
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: “Intellectual Property” versus Creative Collaboration?, The Exciting Novelty of Collaboration, Open Source Editing, Note View full abstract»

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      Creativity and Domains of Collaboration

      Page(s): 7 - 12
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the collaborative model of creativity -- with examples ranging from collective ownership in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome project -- and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity based on strong intellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights, argues Rishab Ghosh in his introduction, were ostensibly developed to increase creativity; but today, policy decisions that treat knowledge and art as if they were physical forms of property actually threaten to decrease creativity, limit public access to creativity, and discourage collaborative creativity. "Newton should have had to pay a license fee before being allowed even to see how tall the 'shoulders of giants' were, let alone to stand upon them," he writes.The contributors to CODE, from such diverse fields as economics, anthropology, law, and software development, examine collaborative creativity from a variety of perspectives, looking at new and old forms of creative collaboration and the mechanisms emerging to study them. Discussing the philosophically resonant issues of ownership, property, and the commons, they ask if the increasing application of the language of property rights to knowledge and creativity constitutes a second enclosure movement -- or if the worldwide acclaim for free software signifies a renaissance of the commons. Two concluding chapters offer concrete possibilities for both alternatives, with one proposing the establishment of "positive intellectual rights" to information and another issuing a warning against the threats to networked knowledge posed by globalization. View full abstract»

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      Imagined Collectivities and Multiple Authorship

      Page(s): 13 - 28
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Materializing Forms, Collaborative Creativity, End Note: Validation, Acknowledgments, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Modes of Creativity and the Register of Ownership

      Page(s): 29 - 44
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Creativity and Appropriation, Multiple Ownership of Spirits and People, Property, Valuing Process or Outcome?, Conclusion, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Some Properties of Culture and Persons

      Page(s): 45 - 60
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Ownership gathers things momentarily to a point by locating them in the owner, halting endless dissemination, effecting an identity. (Marilyn Strathern, 1999, 177) View full abstract»

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      Square Pegs in Round Holes? Cultural Production, Intellectual Property Frameworks, and Discourses of Power

      Page(s): 61 - 74
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Standpoints, Discourse, and Power, Square Pegs in Round Holes?, Discourse and Power in Intellectual Property Regimes, Conclusion, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Who Got Left Out of the Property Grab Again? Oral Traditions, Indigenous Rights, and Valuable Old Knowledge

      Page(s): 75 - 84
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Different Perspectives and Different Problems, The Property Grab Again, What Has Been Left Out?, Who Has Been Left Out?, Who Does What about This?, References View full abstract»

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      From Keeping “Nature's Secrets” to the Institutionalization of “Open Science”

      Page(s): 85 - 108
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, The Problem: Why “Open Science”?, The Argument: Noble Patrons, Mathematicians, and Principal-Agent Problems, Rival Principals and Common Agency Contracting—The Legacy of European Feudalism, Sequelae: Open Science in the “New Age of Academies”, Conclusion, Acknowledgments, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Mechanisms for Collaboration

      Page(s): 109 - 112
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the collaborative model of creativity -- with examples ranging from collective ownership in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome project -- and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity based on strong intellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights, argues Rishab Ghosh in his introduction, were ostensibly developed to increase creativity; but today, policy decisions that treat knowledge and art as if they were physical forms of property actually threaten to decrease creativity, limit public access to creativity, and discourage collaborative creativity. "Newton should have had to pay a license fee before being allowed even to see how tall the 'shoulders of giants' were, let alone to stand upon them," he writes.The contributors to CODE, from such diverse fields as economics, anthropology, law, and software development, examine collaborative creativity from a variety of perspectives, looking at new and old forms of creative collaboration and the mechanisms emerging to study them. Discussing the philosophically resonant issues of ownership, property, and the commons, they ask if the increasing application of the language of property rights to knowledge and creativity constitutes a second enclosure movement -- or if the worldwide acclaim for free software signifies a renaissance of the commons. Two concluding chapters offer concrete possibilities for both alternatives, with one proposing the establishment of "positive intellectual rights" to information and another issuing a warning against the threats to networked knowledge posed by globalization. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Benefit Sharing: Experiments in Governance

      Page(s): 113 - 126
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: An Incitement to Share, International Frameworks, Computing Sovereignties, From Field to Clinic, Practices and Idioms of Inclusion, Benefit-Sharing Futures, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Trust among the Algorithms: Ownership, Identity, and the Collaborative Stewardship of Information

      Page(s): 127 - 152
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, A Peculiar Anthropology, Identity, Authentication, and Anonymity, Crypto, Insider Threats and Collaborative Stewardship, Digital Rights Management and Its Discontents, Conclusion, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Cooking-Pot Markets and Balanced Value Flows

      Page(s): 153 - 168
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Like Barter, but Where Are the Transactions?, Measurement, but of What?, Value-Flow and the Point of Measurement, Identifying, Tracking, and Measuring Cooking-Pot Networks, Conclusion, and a Starting Point for Measurement, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm

      Page(s): 169 - 206
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Peer Production All Around, Why Would Peer Production Emerge in a Networked Environment?, Peer Production of Information in a Pervasively Networked Environment, Markets, Hierarchies, and Peer Production as Information Processing Systems, Information Gains and Allocation Gains, Of Motivation and Organization: The Commons Problem, Integration: Problem and Opportunity, Threats to Motivation, Provisioning Integration, Conclusion, Acknowledgments, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Paying for Public Goods

      Page(s): 207 - 230
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Competitive Intermediators, Compensating Artists in a Word with Peer-to-Peer Filing Sharing, Listeners Would Have to Pay, But Could Choose Who They Paid, Experiment, Evaluate, and Learn, Supporting Health Care R & D, Matching Funds—eBay Meets the Public Domain, How It Would Work, Conclusion, Acknowledgments, Notes, References View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Ownership, Property, and the Commons

      Page(s): 231 - 234
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the collaborative model of creativity -- with examples ranging from collective ownership in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome project -- and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity based on strong intellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights, argues Rishab Ghosh in his introduction, were ostensibly developed to increase creativity; but today, policy decisions that treat knowledge and art as if they were physical forms of property actually threaten to decrease creativity, limit public access to creativity, and discourage collaborative creativity. "Newton should have had to pay a license fee before being allowed even to see how tall the 'shoulders of giants' were, let alone to stand upon them," he writes.The contributors to CODE, from such diverse fields as economics, anthropology, law, and software development, examine collaborative creativity from a variety of perspectives, looking at new and old forms of creative collaboration and the mechanisms emerging to study them. Discussing the philosophically resonant issues of ownership, property, and the commons, they ask if the increasing application of the language of property rights to knowledge and creativity constitutes a second enclosure movement -- or if the worldwide acclaim for free software signifies a renaissance of the commons. Two concluding chapters offer concrete possibilities for both alternatives, with one proposing the establishment of "positive intellectual rights" to information and another issuing a warning against the threats to networked knowledge posed by globalization. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Fencing Off Ideas: Enclosure and the Disappearance of the Public Domain

      Page(s): 235 - 258
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The First Enclosure Movement, The Second Enclosure Movement, How Much of the Intangible Commons Must We Enclose?, Intellectual Property and Distributed Creativity, Beyond Enclosure?, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      A Renaissance of the Commons: How the New Sciences and Internet are Framing a New Global Identity and Order

      Page(s): 259 - 286
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: An Insurgent New Worldview, A Renaissance of the Commons, New Scientific Evidence vs. Homo economicus, The Scientific Case for the Commons, Beyond Determinism: A Constructivist Human Nature, New Economic Challenges to FMD, The Rise of the Internet and Global Culture, Public Policy in the Age of the Commons, It's Time to Start a New Conversation, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Positive Intellectual Rights and Information Exchanges

      Page(s): 287 - 316
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: A Historical Prologue, The Crisis and the Risk of a Tragedy of Enclosures, Digging the Foundations, Public Domain and Public Space, Creator Rights, Keeping Patentability Where It Belongs, Integrity, Libel, and Redress, Transition Issues, Acknowledgments, Notes, References View full abstract»

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      Copyright and Globalization in the Age of Computer Networks

      Page(s): 317 - 336
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The History of Information Distribution and the Origin of Copyright, Copyright, Control, and Computer Networks, Recent Developments in Copyright Enforcement: The “Soviet Approach”, A Uniform Copyright Regime for Everything?, Response, Question, Notes View full abstract»

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      Contributors

      Page(s): 337 - 342
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the collaborative model of creativity -- with examples ranging from collective ownership in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome project -- and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity based on strong intellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights, argues Rishab Ghosh in his introduction, were ostensibly developed to increase creativity; but today, policy decisions that treat knowledge and art as if they were physical forms of property actually threaten to decrease creativity, limit public access to creativity, and discourage collaborative creativity. "Newton should have had to pay a license fee before being allowed even to see how tall the 'shoulders of giants' were, let alone to stand upon them," he writes.The contributors to CODE, from such diverse fields as economics, anthropology, law, and software development, examine collaborative creativity from a variety of perspectives, looking at new and old forms of creative collaboration and the mechanisms emerging to study them. Discussing the philosophically resonant issues of ownership, property, and the commons, they ask if the increasing application of the language of property rights to knowledge and creativity constitutes a second enclosure movement -- or if the worldwide acclaim for free software signifies a renaissance of the commons. Two concluding chapters offer concrete possibilities for both alternatives, with one proposing the establishment of "positive intellectual rights" to information and another issuing a warning against the threats to networked knowledge posed by globalization. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Page(s): 343 - 345
      Copyright Year: 2006

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the collaborative model of creativity -- with examples ranging from collective ownership in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome project -- and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity based on strong intellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights, argues Rishab Ghosh in his introduction, were ostensibly developed to increase creativity; but today, policy decisions that treat knowledge and art as if they were physical forms of property actually threaten to decrease creativity, limit public access to creativity, and discourage collaborative creativity. "Newton should have had to pay a license fee before being allowed even to see how tall the 'shoulders of giants' were, let alone to stand upon them," he writes.The contributors to CODE, from such diverse fields as economics, anthropology, law, and software development, examine collaborative creativity from a variety of perspectives, looking at new and old forms of creative collaboration and the mechanisms emerging to study them. Discussing the philosophically resonant issues of ownership, property, and the commons, they ask if the increasing application of the language of property rights to knowledge and creativity constitutes a second enclosure movement -- or if the worldwide acclaim for free software signifies a renaissance of the commons. Two concluding chapters offer concrete possibilities for both alternatives, with one proposing the establishment of "positive intellectual rights" to information and another issuing a warning against the threats to networked knowledge posed by globalization. View full abstract»