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Privacy on the Line:The Politics of Wiretapping and Encryption

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2007
Author(s): Whitfield Diffie; Susan Landau
Publisher: MIT Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Engineering Profession
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Abstract

Telecommunication has never been perfectly secure. The Cold War culture of recording devices in telephone receivers and bugged embassy offices has been succeeded by a post-9/11 world of NSA wiretaps and demands for data retention. Although the 1990s battle for individual and commercial freedom to use cryptography was won, growth in the use of cryptography has been slow. Meanwhile, regulations requiring that the computer and communication industries build spying into their systems for government convenience have increased rapidly. The application of the 1994 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act has expanded beyond the intent of Congress to apply to voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other modern data services; attempts are being made to require ISPs to retain their data for years in case the government wants it; and data mining techniques developed for commercial marketing applications are being applied to widespread surveillance of the population. InPrivacy on the Line, Whitfield Diffie and Susan Landau strip away the hype surrounding the policy debate over privacy to examine the national security, law enforcement, commercial, and civil liberties issues. They discuss the social function of privacy, how it underlies a democratic society, and what happens when it is lost. This updated and expanded edition revises their original--and prescient--discussions of both policy and technology in light of recent controversies over NSA spying and other government threats to communications privacy.

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      Front Matter

      Page(s): i - xxi
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Half Title, Title, Copyright, Dedication, Contents, Preface to the Updated and Expanded Edition, Preface to the First Edition, Acknowledgements, Half Title View full abstract»

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      Introduction

      Page(s): 1 - 10
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Telecommunication has never been perfectly secure. The Cold War culture of recording devices in telephone receivers and bugged embassy offices has been succeeded by a post-9/11 world of NSA wiretaps and demands for data retention. Although the 1990s battle for individual and commercial freedom to use cryptography was won, growth in the use of cryptography has been slow. Meanwhile, regulations requiring that the computer and communication industries build spying into their systems for government convenience have increased rapidly. The application of the 1994 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act has expanded beyond the intent of Congress to apply to voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other modern data services; attempts are being made to require ISPs to retain their data for years in case the government wants it; and data mining techniques developed for commercial marketing applications are being applied to widespread surveillance of the population. InPrivacy on the Line, Whitfield Diffie and Susan Landau strip away the hype surrounding the policy debate over privacy to examine the national security, law enforcement, commercial, and civil liberties issues. They discuss the social function of privacy, how it underlies a democratic society, and what happens when it is lost. This updated and expanded edition revises their original--and prescient--discussions of both policy and technology in light of recent controversies over NSA spying and other government threats to communications privacy. View full abstract»

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      Cryptography

      Page(s): 11 - 56
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Basics, Cryptography in the Small, One-Time Systems on a Larger Scale, A Brief History of Cryptographic Systems, Strengths of Cryptosystems, Key Management, Strengths and Weaknesses of Cryptography, Public-Key Cryptography, Communication Security, Cryptographic Needs of Business, Why Has Cryptography Taken So Long to Become a Business Success? View full abstract»

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      Cryptography and Public Policy

      Page(s): 57 - 85
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Legacy of World War I, World War II, The Cold War, The 1960s, The 1970s, The 1980s View full abstract»

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      National Security

      Page(s): 87 - 123
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Concept of National Security, The Spectrum of Intelligence, Signals Intelligence and Communications Intelligence, The Impact of Encryption on Communications Intelligence, Information Warfare, The Relationship of Security and Intelligence, The Security of Communications in the United States, Federal Policies and Programs View full abstract»

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      Law Enforcement

      Page(s): 125 - 140
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Function of Law Enforcement: Solution versus Prevention, A Brief History of the Police, The Use of Wiretaps in Law Enforcement, Wiretaps and Their Relatives, Electronic Surveillance in Context, Blurring the National Security/Law Enforcement Distinction View full abstract»

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      Privacy: Protections and Threats

      Page(s): 141 - 171
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Dimensions of Privacy, Privacy Protection in the United States, Privacy Threatened, Privacy Lost, Why Privacy? View full abstract»

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      Wiretapping

      Page(s): 173 - 203
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Evidence versus Intelligence, Wiretaps versus Bugs, Wiretapping and Organized Crime, Title III: Wiretaps Made Legal, A New Wrinkle: “Domestic National Security” View full abstract»

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      Communications in the 1990s

      Page(s): 205 - 227
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Digital Telephony, The Value of Wiretapping, Constraints on Wiretapping, The FBI Makes a Case for Wiretapping, The Digital Telephony Proposal Reappears, Encryption and Wiretapping View full abstract»

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      Cryptography in the 1990s

      Page(s): 230 - 248
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Pretty Good Privacy, A National Encryption Policy, Cryptography and Telephony, The Escrowed Encryption Standard, The Clipper Controversy, Clipper II, III, IV, The Multi-level Information Systems Security Initiative, The National Research Council Report, International Lobbying, The US Congress' Response View full abstract»

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      And Then It All Changed

      Page(s): 249 - 275
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: The Advanced Encryption Standard, Export Control, Cryptography after Deregulation, DRM, DMCA, and TCG, The Bigger Picture, Carnivore, Identity and Anonymity in the New World View full abstract»

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      Après le Déluge

      Page(s): 277 - 312
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: NSA in 2000, Censorship and Surveillance, Cryptologie Après le Déluge, Expansion of Intelligence, The USA PATRIOT Act, NIST's Computer Security Division, CSD Stays at NIST, Data Retention and Data Mining, CALEA Revisited, The National Security Agency, Changing US Role in the World, Yet What Exactly Is the Terrorist Threat? View full abstract»

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      Conclusion

      Page(s): 313 - 335
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Prospects for Intelligence, Prospects for Law Enforcement, Prospects for Security, What Kind of Society Do We Want?, Cryptography in Context, Where Are We Headed? View full abstract»

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      Notes

      Page(s): 337 - 392
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled: Chapter 1: Introduction, Chapter 2: Cryptography, Chapter 3: Cryptography and Public Policy, Chapter 4: National Security, Chapter 5: Law Enforcement, Chapter 6: Privacy: Protections and Threats, Chapter 7: Wiretapping, Chapter 8: Communications in the 1990s, Chapter 9: Cryptography in the 1990s, Chapter 10: And Then It All Changed, Chapter 11: Après le Déluge, Chapter 12: Conclusion View full abstract»

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      Glossary

      Page(s): 393 - 399
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Telecommunication has never been perfectly secure. The Cold War culture of recording devices in telephone receivers and bugged embassy offices has been succeeded by a post-9/11 world of NSA wiretaps and demands for data retention. Although the 1990s battle for individual and commercial freedom to use cryptography was won, growth in the use of cryptography has been slow. Meanwhile, regulations requiring that the computer and communication industries build spying into their systems for government convenience have increased rapidly. The application of the 1994 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act has expanded beyond the intent of Congress to apply to voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other modern data services; attempts are being made to require ISPs to retain their data for years in case the government wants it; and data mining techniques developed for commercial marketing applications are being applied to widespread surveillance of the population. InPrivacy on the Line, Whitfield Diffie and Susan Landau strip away the hype surrounding the policy debate over privacy to examine the national security, law enforcement, commercial, and civil liberties issues. They discuss the social function of privacy, how it underlies a democratic society, and what happens when it is lost. This updated and expanded edition revises their original--and prescient--discussions of both policy and technology in light of recent controversies over NSA spying and other government threats to communications privacy. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Bibliography

      Page(s): 401 - 443
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Telecommunication has never been perfectly secure. The Cold War culture of recording devices in telephone receivers and bugged embassy offices has been succeeded by a post-9/11 world of NSA wiretaps and demands for data retention. Although the 1990s battle for individual and commercial freedom to use cryptography was won, growth in the use of cryptography has been slow. Meanwhile, regulations requiring that the computer and communication industries build spying into their systems for government convenience have increased rapidly. The application of the 1994 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act has expanded beyond the intent of Congress to apply to voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other modern data services; attempts are being made to require ISPs to retain their data for years in case the government wants it; and data mining techniques developed for commercial marketing applications are being applied to widespread surveillance of the population. InPrivacy on the Line, Whitfield Diffie and Susan Landau strip away the hype surrounding the policy debate over privacy to examine the national security, law enforcement, commercial, and civil liberties issues. They discuss the social function of privacy, how it underlies a democratic society, and what happens when it is lost. This updated and expanded edition revises their original--and prescient--discussions of both policy and technology in light of recent controversies over NSA spying and other government threats to communications privacy. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Page(s): 445 - 472
      Copyright Year: 2007

      MIT Press eBook Chapters

      Telecommunication has never been perfectly secure. The Cold War culture of recording devices in telephone receivers and bugged embassy offices has been succeeded by a post-9/11 world of NSA wiretaps and demands for data retention. Although the 1990s battle for individual and commercial freedom to use cryptography was won, growth in the use of cryptography has been slow. Meanwhile, regulations requiring that the computer and communication industries build spying into their systems for government convenience have increased rapidly. The application of the 1994 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act has expanded beyond the intent of Congress to apply to voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other modern data services; attempts are being made to require ISPs to retain their data for years in case the government wants it; and data mining techniques developed for commercial marketing applications are being applied to widespread surveillance of the population. InPrivacy on the Line, Whitfield Diffie and Susan Landau strip away the hype surrounding the policy debate over privacy to examine the national security, law enforcement, commercial, and civil liberties issues. They discuss the social function of privacy, how it underlies a democratic society, and what happens when it is lost. This updated and expanded edition revises their original--and prescient--discussions of both policy and technology in light of recent controversies over NSA spying and other government threats to communications privacy. View full abstract»