Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2011
Author(s): William F. Egan
Book Type: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books
Topics: Communication, Networking & Broadcasting ;  Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Computing & Processing ;  Signal Processing & Analysis
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Abstract

The latest frequency synthesis techniques, including sigma-delta, Diophantine, and all-digital

Sigma-delta is a frequency synthesis technique that has risen in popularity over the past decade due to its intensely digital nature and its ability to promote miniaturization. A continuation of the popular Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock, Second Edition, this timely resource provides a broad introduction to sigma-delta by pairing practical simulation results with cutting-edge research. Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock discusses both sigma-delta and fractional-n—the still-in-use forerunner to sigma-delta—employing Simulink® models and detailed simulations of results to promote a deeper understanding.

After a brief introduction, the book shows how spurs are produced at the synthesizer output by the basic process and different methods for overcoming them. It investigates how various defects in sigma-delta synthesis contribute to spurs or noise in the sy thesized signal. Synthesizer configurations are analyzed, and it is revealed how to trade off the various noise sources by choosing loop parameters. Other sigma-delta synthesis architectures are then reviewed.

The Simulink simulation models that provided data for the preceding discussions are described, providing guidance in making use of such models for further exploration. Next, another method for achieving wide loop bandwidth simultaneously with fine resolution—the Diophantine Frequency Synthesizer—is introduced. Operation at extreme bandwidths is also covered, further describing the analysis of synthesizers that push their bandwidths close to the sampling-frequency limit. Lastly, the book reviews a newly important technology that is poised to become widely used in high-production consumer electronics—all-digital frequency synthesis.

Detailed appendices provide in-depth discussion on various stages of development, and many related resources are available for d wnload, including Simulink models, MATLAB® scripts, spreadsheets, and executable programs. All these features make this authoritative reference ideal for electrical engineers who want to achieve an understanding of sigma-delta frequency synthesis and an awareness of the latest developments in the field.

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      Frontmatter

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      The prelims comprise:

    • Half Title

    • Title

    • Copyright

    • Dedication

    • Contents

    • Preface

    • Symbols List and Glossary

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    Introduction

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Phase-Locked Synthesizer

  • Fractional-N Frequency Synthesis

  • Representing a Change in Divide Number

  • Units

  • Representing Phase Noise

  • Phase Noise at the Synthesizer Output

  • Observing the Output Spectrum

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    Fractional-N and Basic Synthesizers

    Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock
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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • First-Order Fractional-N

  • Second-Order Fractional-N

  • Higher Order Fractional-N

  • Spectrums with Constant Sampling Rate

  • Summary of Spectrums

  • Summary

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    Other Spurious Reduction Techniques

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • LSB Dither

  • Maximum Sequence Length

  • Shortened Accumulators and Lower Primes

  • Long Sequence

  • Summary

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    Defects in Synthesizers

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Noise Models

  • Levels of Other Noise in ?>?> Synthesizers

  • Noise Sources, Equivalent Input Noise

  • Discrete Sidebands

  • Summary

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    Other Architectures

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Stability

  • Feedback

  • Feedforward

  • Quantizer Offset

  • MASH-n1n2n3

  • Cancellation of Quantization Noise in the General Modulator

  • Fractional Swallows

  • Hardware Reduction

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    Simulation

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • SandH.mdl

  • SandHreverse.mdl

  • CPandI.mdl

  • Dither.mdl

  • HandK.mdl

  • SimplePD.mdl

  • CPandIplus.mdl

  • CPandITrunc.mdl

  • Adapting a Model

  • EFeedback.mdl

  • FeedForward.mdl

  • MASH modulator scripts

  • SynStep.mdl

  • Other Methods

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    Diophantine Synthesizer

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Two-Loop Synthesizer

  • Multi Loop Synthesizers

  • MATLAB Scripts

  • Signal Mixing

  • Reference-Frequency Coupling

  • Center Frequencies

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    Operation at Extreme Bandwidths

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Determining the Effects of Sampling

  • A Particular Case

  • When are Sampling Effects Important?

  • Computer Program

  • Sampling Effects in ?>?> Synthesizers

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    All-Digital Frequency Synthesizers

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The Flying Adder Synthesizer

  • ADPLL Synthesizer

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    Appendix A: All Digital

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  • Flying Adder Circuits

  • ADPLL Synthesizer

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    Appendix C: Fractional Cancellation

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Modulator Details

  • First Accumulator

  • Second Accumulator

  • Additional Accumulators

  • Accumulator without Input Register

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    Appendix E: Excess PPSD

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Development of Eq. (2.4)

  • Approximating kp as constant

  • Approximation in Eq. (E.8)

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    Appendix F: References to

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    Appendix G: Using Gsmpl

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  • Open-Loop Transfer Function

  • Closed-Loop Responses

  • Saving Results

  • Version Number

  • Example Session

  • Generating Analysis Plots

  • Verification of Gardner's Stability Limits

  • The Nyquist Plot

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    Appendix H: Sample-and-Hold Circuit

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Transient Performance

  • Filter Capacitor Before Sampler

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    Appendix L: Loop Response

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Primary Loop

  • Damped Loop

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    Appendix M: Mash PPSD

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • MASH Modulator: First Stage

  • MASH Modulator: Second Order

  • MASH Modulator: Higher Order

  • Variances

  • Some Parameters of S ?>

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    Appendix N: Sampled Noise

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  • Case 1: Wn ?> f ref

  • Case 2: 1/T ?> Wn ?> f ref

  • Case 3: Wn ?> 1/T ?> f ref

  • Variance of Sampled Noise (1/T ?> f ref)

  • Convolution of PSDs

  • Representing Squared PSDs

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    Appendix O: Oscillator Spectrums

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    Appendix P: Phase Detectors

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    Appendix Q: Quantization PPSD

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Development of Eq. (Q.1)

  • Superposition

  • New Synthesized Frequency

  • Loop Response

  • Verification of the Effect of Sampling on the Loop

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    Appendix R: Reference Frequency Spurs

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Leakage Current

  • Pulse Offset

  • ?> ?> Modulation

  • Effect of ?>?> Modulation on Pulse Offset Spurs

  • Effect of ?>?> Modulation on Leakage Spurs

  • Effects of Resampling

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    Appendix S: Spectrum Analysis

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Spectrums

  • The Spectrum Analyzer

  • The Window Function

  • Density and Discrete Spurs

  • Control Parameters

  • Frequency Conversion in an Analyzer

  • Displaying L, FPSD, and PPSD

  • Spectral Overlaps

  • Anomalous Spurs

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    Appendix T: Toolboxes

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    Appendix U: Noise Produced by Charge Pump Current Unbalance (Mismatch)

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    Appendix W: Getting Files from the Wiley Internet Site

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    Appendix X: Some Tables

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    This appendix contains sections titled:

  • Accumulator Shortening

  • Sequence Lengths

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    End Notes

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    References

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    Index

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