Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1992
Author(s): Gustavus J. Simmons
Book Type: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books
Topics: Communication, Networking & Broadcasting
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Abstract

The field of cryptography has experienced an unprecedented development in the past decade and the contributors to this book have been in the forefront of these developments. In an information-intensive society, it is essential to devise means to accomplish, with information alone, every function that it has been possible to achieve in the past with documents, personal control, and legal protocols (secrecy, signatures, witnessing, dating, certification of receipt and/or origination). This volume focuses on all these needs, covering all aspects of the science of information integrity, with an emphasis on the cryptographic elements of the subject.

In addition to being an introductory guide and survey of all the latest developments, this book provides the engineer and scientist with algorithms, protocols, and applications. Of interest to computer scientists, communications engineers, data management specialists, cryptographers, mathematicians, security specialists, network engineers.

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    The First Ten Years of Public Key Cryptology

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    Public key cryptosystems separate the capacities for encryption and decryption so that (1) many people can encrypt messages in such a way that only one person can read them or (2) one person can encrypt messages in such a way that many people can read them. This separation allows important improvements in the management of cryptographic keys and makes it possible to ?>sign?> a purely digital message.

    Public key cryptography was discovered in the spring of 1975 and has followed a surprising course. Although diverse systems were proposed early on, the ones that appear both practical and secure today are all very closely related and the search for new and different ones has met with little success. Despite this reliance on a limited mathematical foundation, public key cryptography is revolutionizing communication security by making possible secure communication networks with hundreds of thousands of subscribers.

    Equally important is the impact of public key cryptography on the theoretical side of communication security. It has given cryptographers a systematic means of addressing a broad range of security objectives and pointed the way toward a more theoretical approach that allows the development of cryptographic protocols with proven security characteristics.

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    Public Key Cryptography

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Cryptosystems and Cryptanalysis

  • Key Management

  • Digital Signatures and Hash Functions

  • Examples of Public Key Systems and Hash Functions

  • Implementations of Public Key Cryptography

  • A Sample Proposal for a LAN Implementation

  • Mathematical and Computational Aspects

  • An Introduction to Zero-Knowledge

  • Alternatives to the Diffie-Hellman Model

  • This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Appendices

  • References

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    A Comparison of Practical Public Key Cryptosystems Based on Integer Factorization and Discrete LogarithmsPartial support for this work was provided by the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, and by Newbridge Microsystems (a division of Newbridge Networks Corporation), Kanata, Ontario.

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Copyright Year: 1992

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    based on the current literature, this survey carries out a detailed analysis of a version of the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve integer factorization algorithm, and of the Coppersmith algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in GF(2n). This is used for a practical security comparison between the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptosystem and the El Gamal cryptosystem in fields of characteristic 2. Other aspects of the cryptosystems are also compared. In addition, the security of elliptic curve cryptosystems over GF(2n) is discussed, and related to that of the previously mentioned cryptosystems.

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    Authentication

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
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    Digital Signatures

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Fundamental Concepts

  • Techniques for Digital Signatures

  • Techniques for Hashing

  • Applications for Digital Signatures

  • This chapter contains sections titled:

  • References

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    A Survey of Information AuthenticationThis work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories and supported by the u.s. Department of Energy under contract no. DEAC0476DP00789.

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Copyright Year: 1992

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    In both commercial and private transactions, authentication of information (messages) is of vital concern to all of the participants. For example, the party accepting a check usually insists on corroborating identification of the issuer¿¿-¿¿authentication of the originator, or as we shall say throughout this chapter, the transmitter¿¿-¿¿and the party issuing the check not only fils in the face amount in numerals, but also writes out the amount in script, and may even go so far as to emboss that part of the check to make it more difficult for anyone to subsequently alter the face amount appearing on an instrument bearing his valid signature, that is, a primitive means of providing for the later authentication of the communication or message. Although this example illustrates the two main concerns of the participants in the authentication of information, namely, the verification that the communication was originated by the purported transmitter and that it hasn't subsequently been substituted for or altered, it fails to illustrate perhaps the most important feature in the current use of authentication. The information conveyed on the check is inextricably linked to a physical instrument, the check itself, for which there exist legally accepted protocols to establish the authenticity of the signature and the integrity of what the issuer wrote in the event of a later dispute as to whether the check is valid or the signature genuine, independent of the information content (date, amount, etc.) recorded there. The contemporary concern in authentication, though, is with situations in which the exchange involves only information, that is, in which there is no physical instrument that can later be used to corroborate the authenticity of either the transmitter's identity or of the communication.

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    Protocols

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    Overview of Interactive Proof Systems and ZeroKnowledge

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    In traditional computational complexity theory, the informal notion of efficiently verifiable sets of statements is formalized as nondeterministic polynomial time sets. Recently, an alternative formalization has emerged: sets with interactive proof systems. An interactive proof system is called zero-knowledge if it succeeds in proving the desired statements and nothing else. This chapter surveys definitions, examples, known results, and open problems in the area of interactive proof systems and zero-knowledge.

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    An Introduction to Shared Secret and/or Shared Control Schemes and Their ApplicationThis work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DEAC0476DPOO789.

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Copyright Year: 1992

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    This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • The General Model(s)

  • Constructing Concurrence Schemes

  • The Geometry of Shared Secret Schemes

  • Setting Up Shared Secret Schemes

  • Key Distribution via Shared Secret Schemes

  • Conclusions

  • This chapter contains sections titled:

  • References

  • Bibliography (Shared Secret Schemes)

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    Cryptanalysis

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    Cryptanalysis: A Survey of Recent Results

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    In spite of the progress in computational complexity, it is still true that cryptosystems are tested by subjecting them to cryptanalytic attacks by experts. Most of the cryptosystems that have been publicly proposed in the last decade have been broken. This chapter outlines a selection of the attacks that have been used and explains some of the basic tools available to the cryptanalyst. Attacks on knapsack cryptosystems, congruential generston, and a variety of two-key secrecy and signature schemes are discussed. There is also a brief discussion of the status of the security of cryptosystems for which there are no known feasible attacks, such as the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), discrete exponentiation, and Data Encryption Standard (DES) cryptosystems.

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    Protocol Failures in CryptosystemsThis chapter first appeared in the Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 76, no. 5, May 1988.

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Copyright Year: 1992

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    When a cryptoalgorithm is used to solve data security or authentication problems, it is implemented within the context of a protocol that specifies the appropriate procedures for data handling. The purpose of the protocol is to ensure that when the cryptosystem is applied, the level of security or authentication required by the system is actually attained. In this chapter, we survey a collection of protocols in which this goal has not been met, not because of a failure of the cryptoalgorithm used, but rather because of shortcomings in the design of the protocol. Guidelines for the development of sound protocols will also be extracted from the analysis of these failures.

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    Applications

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    Copyright Year: 1992

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    The Smart Card: A Standardized Security Device Dedicated to Public Cryptology

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Copyright Year: 1992

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    At first glance, a smart card appears to be simply an improved traditional credit card. But a smart card is in reality a multipurpose, tamper-resistant security device. Some consider it to be either the ultimate incorruptible cell resisting virus attacks or a fourth level in the hierarchy after the host computer, the departmental computer, and the personal computer. As a matter of fact, these two concepts are not exclusive.

    Smart cards are already in widespread public use. Through this user-friendly technology, cryptology is invading our everyday life. This invasion has a large influence on security in various fields of applications, not only in banking, but also in the areas of health, pay television, telephone, home computers, data processing, communication network, and more generally, information technology.

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    How to Insure That Data Acquired to Verify Treaty Compliance Are TrustworthyThis chapter first appeared in the Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 76, no. 5, May 1988.

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Copyright Year: 1992

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    In a series of papers [6-8] this author has documented the evolution at the Sandia National Laboratories of a solution to the problem of how to make it possible for two mutually distrusting (and presumed deceitful) parties, the host and the monitor, to both trust a data acquisition system whose function it is to inform the monitor, and perhaps third parties, whether the host has or has not violated the terms of a treaty. The even more important question of what data will adequately show compliance (or noncompliance) and of how this data can be gathered in a way that adequately insures against deception will not be discussed here. We start by assuming that such a data acquisition system exists, and that the opportunities for deception that are the subject of this chapter lie only in the manipulation of the data itself, that is, forgery, modification, retransmission, etc. The national interests of the various participants, host, monitor and third parties, at first appear to be mutually exclusive and irreconcilable, however we will arrive at the conclusion that it is possible to simultaneously satisfy the interests of all parties. The technical device on which this resolution depends is the concatenation of two or more private authentication channels to create a system in which each participant need only trust that part of the whole that he contributed. In the resulting scheme, no part of the data need be kept secret from any participant at any time; no party, nor collusion of fewer than all of the parties can utter an undetectable forgery; no unilateral action on the part of any party can lessen the confidence of the others as to the authenticity of the data and finally third parties, that is, arbiters, can be logically persuaded of the authenticity of data. Thus, finally after nearly two decades of development a complete technical solution is in hand for the problem of trustworthy verification of treaty compliance.

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    Index

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Page(s): 631 - 639
    Copyright Year: 1992

    Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

    The field of cryptography has experienced an unprecedented development in the past decade and the contributors to this book have been in the forefront of these developments. In an information-intensive society, it is essential to devise means to accomplish, with information alone, every function that it has been possible to achieve in the past with documents, personal control, and legal protocols (secrecy, signatures, witnessing, dating, certification of receipt and/or origination). This volume focuses on all these needs, covering all aspects of the science of information integrity, with an emphasis on the cryptographic elements of the subject.

    In addition to being an introductory guide and survey of all the latest developments, this book provides the engineer and scientist with algorithms, protocols, and applications. Of interest to computer scientists, communications engineers, data management specialists, cryptographers, mathematicians, security specialists, network engineers. View full abstract»

  • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

    Editor's Biography

    Contemporary Cryptology:The Science of Information Integrity
    Page(s): 640
    Copyright Year: 1992

    Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

    The field of cryptography has experienced an unprecedented development in the past decade and the contributors to this book have been in the forefront of these developments. In an information-intensive society, it is essential to devise means to accomplish, with information alone, every function that it has been possible to achieve in the past with documents, personal control, and legal protocols (secrecy, signatures, witnessing, dating, certification of receipt and/or origination). This volume focuses on all these needs, covering all aspects of the science of information integrity, with an emphasis on the cryptographic elements of the subject.

    In addition to being an introductory guide and survey of all the latest developments, this book provides the engineer and scientist with algorithms, protocols, and applications. Of interest to computer scientists, communications engineers, data management specialists, cryptographers, mathematicians, security specialists, network engineers. View full abstract»



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