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High-Temperature Electronics

Cover Image Copyright Year: 1999
Author(s): Randall Kirschman
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Engineered Materials, Dielectrics & Plasmas
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Abstract

"HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society.

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      Frontmatter

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): iii - xvii
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Title
      Copyright
      Dedication
      Contents
      Foreword
      Preface
      Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      General Introduction

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 1
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      The Characterization of High Temperature Electronics for Future Aircraft Engine Digital Electronic Control Systems

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 36 - 41
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The characterization of high temperature electronics is presented including high temperature effects, semiconductors and barrier metallizations. Design solutions and material selections for mitigation of high temperature effects are indicated. The following semiconductor materials are considered as future high temperature candidates: - Silicon (Si) - Gallium arsenide (GaAs) - Gallium phosphide (GaP) - Silicon carbide (SiC) - Diamond like carbon (C) This characterization was originally prepared in accordance with the USAF Future Advance Controls Technology Study (FACTS). View full abstract»

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      A Summary of HighTemperature Electronics Research and Development

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 42 - 47
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Current and future needs in automotive, aircraft, space, military, and well logging industries require operation of electronicsat higher temperaturesthan today's accepted limit of 395 K. Without the availability of high-temperature electronics, many systems must operate under derated conditions or must accept severe mass penalties required by coolant systems to maintain electronic temperatures below critical levels. This paper presents ongoing research and development in the electronics community to bring high-temperature electronics to commercial realization. Much of this work was recently reviewed at the FIRST International High-Temperature Electronics Conference held 16-20 June 1991 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. View full abstract»

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      An Overview of HighTemperature Electronic Device Technologies and Potential Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 48 - 62
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      High-temperature electronics applications are found in combustion systems, well logging, industrial processes, air stagnation points in supersonic aircraft, vehicle brakes, nuclear reactors, and dense electronic packages. We summarize physical effects and materials issues important for reliable operation of semiconductor device technologies at high temperatures (>125°C). We review the high-temperature potential of Si, GaAs, other III-V compounds, and SiC. For completeness, we also comment on nitrides, diamond, and vacuum microelectronics. We conclude that Si on insulator (SOI) technology can be developd readily for small signal operation up to about 300°C. There is some ongoing work in this area. GaAs offers little advantage over Si because of poor device isolation and the lack of reliable contacts above 250°C. Other III-V compounds could be developed for operation to 600°C, using processes similar to those used for optoelectronics. There may be a market niche for III-V power devices above 200°C. There is considerable activity in semiconducting SiC, and device functionality has been demonstrated above 600°C. SiC is promising for operation above 300°C, and for power devices at frequencies from de to 10 GHz, but it faces numerous challenges to achieve manufacturable status. We attempt to match technologies with application areas. View full abstract»

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      Silicon and Gallium Arsenide in High Temperature Electronics Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 63 - 68
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Electronic circuits and systems which can operate at temperatures up to 250°C or even higher become more and more important. It can be shown that Si as semiconductor material can be used up to this temperature provided that circuit structures are optimized to handle the parasitic effects rising with temperature. For even higher temperatures up to 350°C GaAs can be used. Other problems going along with high temperature applications arise from material characteristics as melting point, mechanical stability, insulating characteristics and migration problems. This paper reports on a German Joint Research project dealing with the problems mentioned above. Some of them could be solved satisfactory, some problems are still existing. View full abstract»

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      The Influence of Temperature on Integrated Circuit Failure Mechanisms

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 69 - 76
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Temperature is generally considered to be a key parameter in the design of electronic equipment. and cautions concerning temperature and its relationship to reliability are widely documented. While some studies suggest that temperature is the most critical stress influence on microelectronic device failures, the actual failure mechanisms have generally not been quantified in terms of whether a steady state temperature, temperature change, rate of temperature change, or spatial temperature gradient induced failure. In this paper. the influence of temperature on major integrated circuit failure mechanisms is discussed, with emphasis placed on those failure mechanisms which occur in the temperature range of - 55°C to 125°C. This paper shows that no simple expression can adequately describe temperature as a failure accelerator for all integrated circuit failure mechanisms. In fact, a generic statement that can be attributed to temperature is lacking. This suggests that a much deeper level of insight into temperature dependencies is necessary to achieve reliable equipment and avoid unnecessary thermal design complexities. Thermal management in electronic equipment can involve additional costs and system complexities that can be of consequential importance, and temperature control should not be routinely employed without close study and justification. View full abstract»

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      Assessment of Reliability Concerns for WideTemperature Operation of Semiconductor Devices and Circuits

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 77 - 82
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Factors that may affect the long-term (30 yrs 106 h) reliability of electronic systems that can withstand temperature extremes (-150 to +300 °C) are discussed. There is ample evidence that a straightforward application of the Arrhenius equation, with activation energies determined from high-temperature accelerated stress testing, is not strictly valid for predicting real device lifetime. The relevance and validity of this traditional reliability assurance methodology, especially near the high-temperature operating limit, is critiqued. Some of the barriers to long-term reliable operation of devices and circuits subject to extreme temperatures are identified in the broad areas of: (1) semiconductor materials, (2) components and circuit design, and (3) packaging and assembly. Finally, alternative approaches to reliability assurance, not dependent on elevated temperature testing, which may be applicable to high-temperature electronics, are discussed. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Silicon Carbide Electronic Devices (Westinghouse)

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 83 - 86
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Field Effect Transistors
      Ultraviolet Detectors
      Thermistors
      SiC Rectifiers
      SiC Rectifiers (Cont.) View full abstract»

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      Hot Time in Store for ICs

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 87 - 88
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Demand for Integrated Circuits that can Function at 250°C to 350°C in Industrial and Commercial Applications Spurs Research View full abstract»

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      BeattheHeat Hybrids Ready to go to Market

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 89 - 90
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Teledyne Philbrick works on materials and structures to push operation above 200°C; other firms also activ View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Transistor and Thyristor Developed

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 91
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 92 - 93
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Features
      Sensor Signal Conditioning
      Standard Cells and Gate Arrays
      Signal Processing
      Non Compensatable Pressure Sensor Errors
      Bulk VS. SOI Inverter Delay
      Sulk VS. SOI Drain Leakage View full abstract»

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      New Transistors Take the Heat

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 94
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Applications, Needs, and Alternatives

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 95
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Thermal Protection Methods for Electronics in Hot Wells

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 111 - 124
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This article reviews the criteria and constraints used to successfully design thermal protection for down-hole tools and electronic instruments that make high-quality measurements in hot geothermal wells. Imposed thermal, mechanical, and chemical environments and design methods for obtaining highly reliable electronic operation are described. The two main approaches for thermally protecting electronics and ensuring operation at high temperatures are (1) to use temperature-hardened electronics below its specified temperature limit, or (2) to use conventional electronics with thermal protection, either a passive thermal protection system using insulation and heat sinking or an active refrigeration system. The technology related to both approaches for thermal protection and the choices among thermal protection methods are reviewed. View full abstract»

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      Service Company Needs

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 125 - 131
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This presentation considers the high temperature electronics and instrumentation needs of a logging service company. The following topics are addressed: 1) The Well-Logging Function 2) Evolution of the Techniques 3) Problems Due to Market Size 4) Identification of the Key Technologies 5) CMOS and Dielectric Isolation - A Review 6) Passive Components 7) Future Requirements View full abstract»

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      Present and Future Needs in High Temperature Electronics for the Well Logging Industry

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 132 - 133
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Electronics for Geothermal EnergyWork performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Contract No. DEAC0476PD00789 for the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE).

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 134 - 140
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The worldwide production of electric power from geothermal energy sources at present is 1.2 GW. The largest facility is in the United States at The Geysers, in Northern California, where 605 MW is on-line. Recent estimates indicate that geothermal energy sources could produce over 10 GW of power in the USA by 1990; however, to achieve this goal there must be accelerated exploration and development. Developers and investors may be reluctant to make the necessary commitments if there is high risk or uncertainty in a geothermal reservoir's production potential. Also, once a system is in operation, engineers periodically need accurate and timely downhole information from each well in order to obtain optimum production. Instrumentation for geothermal borehole measurements is being expanded beyond today's limited capabilities. Prototypical logging tools have been successfully field-tested to 275° C; a highresolution quartz pressure transducer and a gallium phosphide diode have been successfully tested. Near-term goals of current programs are to develop instrumentation for use at 275° in pressures up to 48.3 MPa (7,000 psi). View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Electronic Requirements in Aeropropulsion Systems

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 141 - 144
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This paper discusses the needs for high-temperature electronic and electrooptic devices as they would be used on aircraft engines in either research and development applications, or operational applications. The conclusion reached is that the temperature at which the devices must be able to function is in the neighborhood of 500° to 600°C either for R&D or for operational applications. In R&D applications, the devices must function in this temperature range when in the engine but only for a moderate period of time. On an operational engine, the reliability requirements dictate that the devices be able to be burned-in at temperatures significantly higher than those at which they will function on the engine. The major point made is that semiconductor technology must be pushed well beyond the level at which silicon will be able to function. View full abstract»

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      The Requirements for High Temperature Electronics in a Future High Speed Civil Transport

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 145 - 152
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      High temperature electronics can significantly contribute to the performance of the HSCT primary control system, thus to its economic viability, by reducing wiring weight, electromagnetic and radio frequency interference, connector count, and measurement noise. This paper identifies the main environmental and performance requirements for high temperature electronics to be used in HSCT propulsion and flight control subsystems, and presents a proposed HSCT development schedule to provide insight into the program time available for the development of high temperature electronics. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Electronics for Automobiles

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 153 - 160
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Automotive electronics is already a major market and is expected to increase. The automobile presents a harsh environment for electronics, which must survive thermal cycling and other types of environmental stresses in addition to elevated temperatures. These factors, coupled with demands for high reliability and low cost, and the evolution of automobile design, challenge the capabilities of electronics technology. The potential of several existing and projected technologies to satisfy present and future needs for higher-temperature automotive electronics is considered. Nearterm needs can be met with modified silicon-based electronics, while silicon-carbide technology is a promising candidate for the future. However, there is a universal need for advances in packaging, which is the primary limitation at present. In addition, new approaches are needed to verify reliability and predict lifetime of components. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Automotive Electronics: An Overview

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 161 - 171
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The evolution of automotive electronics over the past 67 years is outlined. Current operating temperature specifications required for automotive application are presented. The factors limiting the increase of the operating temperature of automotive electronic system are discussed in detail from the point of view of the major system components: the active and passive components, the packaging, and the cables and connectors. We conclude that the thick film materials, passive components, and component attachment systems are the factors that currently limit increasing the maximum operating temperature of hybrid electronic modules. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Electronics Applications in Space Exploration

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 172 - 176
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      One of the most exciting applications of high-temperature electronics is related to the exploration of the planet Venus. On this planet the atmospheric temperatures range from about 170 K at elevations of 100 km to a searing 730 K near the surface. Mechanisms for exploring the atmosphere might include balloons, airplanes, surface landers, and surface-launched probes. Balloons, for example, could fly in the region from 20 (320°C at 22 bars) to 60 km (-20°C at 0.2 bar). Suitable balloon fabrics presently exclude excursions to lower altitudes; however, adequate electronic systems could survive to 325°C. Small airplanes would require more sophisticated electronics for guidance and control. Long life surface landers would most likely be developed FIRST, as these could be used to measure long-term variations in weather. Ranging transponders would be important for ephemeris development, measurement of spin state, and studies of general relativity. Surface temperatures of 460°C and pressures of 90 bars present a challenge to the developers of such instruments. Other space applications for high-temperature electronics include transponders for the surface of Mercury, near solar drag-free orbiters, and deep atmospheric penetrators for Jupiter and Saturn. Each of these has its own particular problems with respect to instrumentation adequate to meet the desired scientific goals. This paper is primarily concerned with defining possible mission applications, the required electronic systems, and the approaches that are currently being studied for their development. View full abstract»

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      Research Activity on High Temperature Electronics and Its Future Application in Space Exploration in Japan

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 177 - 182
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      High temperature electronics is one of the key technologies for inner planetary exploration. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science(ISAS) organized a High Temperature Electronics meeting in 1991 to survey the related technology. This paper outlines the talks given at that and three subsequent meetings, through which current research activity on high temperature electronics in Japan is introduced. A feasibility study for the Venus exploration is presented briefly as a candidate for a future ISAS mission. The balloon floats below the clouds in the Venus atmosphere at a low altitude of 10 to 20 km, allowing exploration of the dynamics and composition of the atmosphere together with direct observation of the surface of Venus. The environmental temperature is 300-400° C. The mission is believed to be feasible on the basis of currently available techniques. View full abstract»

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      Wireless, Invessel Neutron Monitor for Initial CoreLoading of Advanced Breeder ReactorsResearch sponsored by the Division of Research and Technology, U.S . Department of Energy under contract W7405eng26 with the Union Carbide Corporation.

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 183 - 186
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      An experimental wireless, in-vessel neutron monitor is being developed to measure the reactivity of an advanced breeder reactor as the core is loaded for the FIRST time to preclude an accidental criticality incident. The environment is liquid sodium at a temperature of 220°C, with negligible gamma or neutron radiation. With ultrasonic transmission of neutron data, no fundamental limitation has been observed after tests at 230°C for >2000 h. The neutron sensitivity was l count/s-nv, and the potential data transmission rate was 104 counts/s View full abstract»

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      The Effect of Maximum Allowable Payload Temperature on the Mass of a Multimegawatt Space Based Platform

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 187 - 194
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Calculations were performed to determine the mass of a space based platform as a function of the maximum allowable operating temperature of the electrical equipment within the platform payload. Two computer programs were used in conjunction to perform these calculations. The FIRST program was used to determine the mass of the platform reactor, shield, and power conversion system. The second program was used to determine the mass of the main and secondary radiators of the platform. The main radiator removes the waste heat associated with the power conversion system and the secondary radiator removes the waste heat associated with the platform payload. These calculations were performed for both Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with two different types of payload cooling systems: a pumped-loop system (a heat exchanger with a liquid coolant) and a refrigerator system. The results indicate that increases in the maximum allowable payload temperature offer significant platform mass savings for both the Brayton and Rankine cycle platforms with either the pumpedloop or refrigerator payload cooling systems. Therefore, with respect to platform mass, the development of high temperature electrical equipment would be advantageous. View full abstract»

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      Silicon Devices and Integrated Circuits

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 195
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Silicon Diodes Models

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 214 - 222
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A p + n Si diode model which accounts for generation and recombination in a linearly-graded depletion region is outlined in this work. It is found that a single set of parameters can be used to describe the current vs voltage characteristic from 50 to 250°C for both reverse bias and moderate forward bias conditions. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature MicroelectronicsExpanding the Applications for Smart Sensors

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 223 - 226
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Solid-state sensors are attractive for many applications because they can include integrated circuitry as well as the transducer. This potential advantage is often lost because sensing requirements call for ambient temperatures higher than what the electronics can tolerate. In this paper we discuss process, layout, and circuit approaches for increasing the operating temperature of silicon circuitry to as high as 300°C. Development of high-temperature microelectronics on smart sensor chips will improve system reliability and extend the use of solid-state sensors into many new applications. View full abstract»

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      Extension of HighTemperature Electronics

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 227 - 232
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Commercial and Sandia fabricated silicon MOSFET's, thick-film resistors and capacitors, and magnetic components were investigated in an effort to increase the versatility of microelectronics usedat 300°C and to form a foundation for a higher temperature technology. Commerical MOSFET's were found susceptible to parameter drifts and have unacceptable electrical characteristics when tested at 300°C, whereas redesigned low alkali impurity devices were able to maintain stable operation at 300°C for 1000 h with improved characteristics. Thus, although MOSFET's are prone to aging, it is possible to use fabrication procedures which allow MOSFET use at high temperature. A specially developed ceramic filled, high silica frit dielectric thick-film material exhibited a sufticiently high resistivity to pennit development of 300°C, 1.0 F capacitors. Procedures were developed to make this material compatible with the multilayer brick capacitor fonnat which is necessary for miniaturization. Both this dielectric and a ruthenium-based resistor material were shown useful to 500°C. In addition, a spectrum of magnetic components was qualified for use at 500°C. View full abstract»

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      Integrated Circuit Characteristics at 260C for Aircraft EngineControl Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 233 - 240
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Extensive characterizations of discrete devices and integrated circuits are reported over the temperature range from room temperature to 250°C and 300°C. These are the initial results of a Navy program for the evaluation and design of solid-state electronics to be operated uncooled in aircraft-engine control applications. Based on these results and results from earlier investigations, discrete semiconductor devices of essentially all generic types function with usable characteristics at junction temperatures up to at least 300°C. FIRST-order device parameter changes result from increased leakage, reduced mobility, and increased resistivity. Both analog and digital integrated circuits were found to exhibit de as well as useful dynamic characteristics up to temperatures near 250°C. Bipolar circuits with either junction or dielectric isolation degrade due to changes in device operating points and high leakage currents. In analog circuits the temperature capabiity is found to depend critically on the specific circuit design implemented. For a variety of CMOS devices tested a pnpn latchup mechanism between the p-channel transistor and the input protection network limits useful device operation to 260°C. Changes in device and circuit layout are needed to circumvent this failure mode. No fundamental barrier to 300°C functionality of integrated circuits (designed specifically for high-temperature application) was found. View full abstract»

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      350C CMOS Logic Process

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 241 - 244
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Adielectrically isolated self-aligned silicon gate CMOS process designed for high temperature operation is deBcribed. Component characteristics over the 25°C to 325°C range are presented . Circuit operation to 380°C is demonstrated. Circuit and process modifications which could extend operating temperature to about 450°C are suggested. View full abstract»

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      Process Characteristics and Design Methods for a 300C Quad Operational Amplifier

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 245 - 250
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The components of a dielectricly isolated complementary vertical bipolar process selected for optimum high-temperature performance are characterized over the temperature range 25° to 300°C. High-temperature parameters which pose special design problems are noted and methods for overcoming the problems are described. A quad operational amplifer designed using these methods is presented and the performance of that design in integrated form is described. Reliability results are presented. View full abstract»

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      A High Temperature Precision Amplifier

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 251 - 258
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A precision operational amplifier has been developed for instrumentation applications in which the circuitry must operate in ambient temperatures as high as 200°C. At 200°C the amplifier maintains an input offset voltage and current of less than 200 V and 1 nA respectively, a gain bandwidth product of 2.2 MHz, and a slew rate of 5.4 V/S. The amplifier is fabricated in a standard CMOS process and consumes 5.5 mW of power at a supply voltage of 5 V. A continuous time autozeroed amplifier topology is used to achieve the low offset voltage levels. At high temperatures the leakage currents of the sample and hold switches used to achieve auto-zeroing degrade the offset correction voltages stored on the hold capacitors. This degradation is reduced by using large external hold capacitors and by minimizing the diffusion area of the switches through the use of a doughnut shaped layout. The effect of the voltage degradation is reduced by sensing the offset correction voltage with a low sensitivity differential auxiliary input stage. A new input switch topology is used to reduce the amplifier's input offset current at high temperatures. View full abstract»

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      Design Considerations in HighTemperature Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 259 - 268
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Tbe design of CMOS analog integrated circuits to be operated at elevated junction temperatures is discussed. Considerations wbich have successfully been implemented in tbe design of basic analog cells for operation over the 25°-250° C range are empbasized. Simple models are presented along with the temperature dependencies of key design parameters. Tbese models and high-temperature trends represent sufficient information for FIRST-order hand analysis prior to computeraided design. View full abstract»

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      Scaling, Subthreshold, and Leakage Current Matching Characteristics in HighTemperature (25C250C) VLSI CMOS Devices

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 269 - 277
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The effects of CMOS technology scaling on the high-temperature characteristics (25°C-250°C) of the threshold voltage, the channel mobility, and drain and source-to-body leakage currents are presented. Three versions (6-, 4-, and 2-m minimum feature length) of a standard CMOS process optimized for digital circuit applications, and a 4-m version of the same process optimized for analog circuit applications are compared with respect to the aforementioned parameters. The temperature-induced trends are qualitatively similar for the four technologies. A dramatic increase in the subthreshold parameter n 0(T) is observed above 150°C in the analog process, which is consistent with the previously reported onset of diffusion-leakage currents near this temperature (1], (2). Detailed leakage-current matching measurements are shown to lead to severe resolution-speed tradeoffs in the design of sampled data circuits operated at elevated temperatures. A simple capacitor switched by a CMOS transmission gate is used to illustrate the latter considerations. Silicon CMOS technologies built on low-resistance epitaxial layers, combined with gold-based metallizations are found to be the most promising among existing technologies for applications up to 250°C. Specific needs for further research on the severe-environment behavior of state-of-the-art and emerging technologies are discussed. View full abstract»

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      Scaling CMOS Design Rules for HighTemperature Latchup Immunity

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 278 - 282
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Existing and emerging needs in the automotive, aircraft, space, and well-logging industries call for operation of electronics at higher temperatures than the traditional 125°C. Temperature requirements for many of these applications, however, do not exceed 250°C. Extending the operation of low-cost junction-isolated CMOS to this temperature is feasible through straightforward changes in process technology, circuit styles, and layout design rules. The greatest challenge in using bulk CMOS at high temperature is latchup, which can be triggered by junction leakage. This article presents an empirical model for the holding voltage of CMOS latchup, which can be used to scale the design rules in a way that maintains latchup robustness at higher temperatures. View full abstract»

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      Integrated Injection Logic with Extended Temperature Range Capability

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 283 - 286
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Silicon I2L devices were designed, fabricated and analyzed. These devices were shown to be fully operational Irom - 55°C to +300°C. View full abstract»

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      Progress of HighTemperature Silicon Integrated Injection Logic

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 287 - 292
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Progress in high-temperature silicon Integrated Injection Logic(IIL) is presented. This was selected as a key component for the high-temperature ICs. A newly resigned IIL was fabricated by the process technologies developed at Toyota Technological Institute. The FIRST high-temperature IILs were developed in 1990 and operated from room temperature to 643 K. In 1991, several improvements were made in the IIL structure, resulting in the development of IILs that operated up to a temperature of 688 K. By redicing IIL's dimensions and the series resistances in its transistor, operating temperatures were increased to 727 K in 1992. As a result of the redaction in base and emitter area for npn transistor and increase in its base impurity concentration, combined with surface treatment with hydrogen, the power-delay product decreased by 33% but the maximum operating temperature did not exceed 727 K. New ideas were introdreed to IIL high-temperature operation, IIL structures and their fabrication processes were redesigned. In 1994, we succeeded in creating a new IIL structure by reducing the fabrication steps from 52 to 39 steps. The newly developed IIL operates up to a temperature of 735 K. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Behavior of MOS Devices

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 293 - 297
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Bulk-silicon and silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) MOS transistors and CMOS logic gates were characterized at temperatures up to 375° C. The bulk-silicon devices were observed to function only below 300°C; the principal degradation mechanism was found to be current leakage at reverse-biased p-n junctions. SOS devices, whose construction eliminates most of these junctions, showed potentially usable characteristics up to 375°C. However, severe self-heating and significant gate-oxide current leakage were observed in SOS. The fact that recognizable characteristics were observed despite self-heating indicates that SOS deviges may be usable at temperatures well above 375° C. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Operation of nMOSFET on Bonded SOI

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 298 - 302
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This paper describes high-temperature operation of nMOSFET on bonded SOI. A long-channel nMOSFET is fabricated on bonded SOI (Si layer thickness 0.3 m), SOS (Si layer thickness 0.3 m), and bulk Si, Bonded SOI is produced using pulse-field-assisted bonding and resistivity-sensitive etching. The high-temperature operation of bonded SOI nMOSFET is demonstrated and compared with SOS and bulk MOSFETs. The leakage current variation with temperature is significantly smaller in bonded sal and in SOS than in bulk MOSFETs. At high temperatures, the drain current to leakage current ratio is 100 times higher in bonded SOI than in SOS and bulk devices. At 300°C. a ratio of 104 is obtained for the bonded SOI nMOSFET. The ratio is expected to be even higher if a reduced channel length and ultrathin (less than 0.1 m) bonded SOI is used. View full abstract»

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      Silicononinsulator Technology for HighTemperature Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices and Circuits

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 303 - 308
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The high temperature characteristics of devices and circuits realized in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology on silicon-an-insulator (SOI) substrates are compared with other materials, and it is demonstrated that CMOS on SOI is presently the most suitable process for the realization of electronic circuits operating at up to more than 300 °C. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Silicononinsulator Electronics for Space Nuclear Power Systems: Requirements and FeasibilityThis work performed at Sandia National Laboratories was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy through contract DEAC0476DP00789.This manuscript is based on a presentation made at the 6th Conference on Hardened Electronics and Radiation Technology, El Toro, CA, Feb. 14, 1988.Received by IEEE May 25, 1988.

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 309 - 322
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      We have performed a study to determine whether silicon very-large-scale integrated circuits (VLSICs) can survive the high temperature (up to 300ï¿¿C) and total-dose radiation environments (up to 10 Mrad over a 7-10 year system life) projected for a very-high-power space nuclear reactor platform. It is shown that circuits built on bulk epitaxial silicon cannot meet the temperature requirement because of excessive junction leakage currents. However, circuits built on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material can meet both the radiation and temperature requirements. From a study of interface-trap generation and annealing, we find that one cannot depend on the elevated temperatures of a space nuclear power platform to automatically improve MOS total-dose radiation hardness. Still, at highenough temperatures (above 175ï¿¿C for these devices) and long enough times postirradiation, device response can be essentially independent of total dose. Reliability and performance issues are also discussed. We find that the temperature dependence of the threshold voltage of the SOI transistors is less than that of bulk transistors. Moreover, the zero-temperature coefficient current is much smaller for these floating-body SOI devices ( 4 A) than for bulk devices ( 60 A). Survivability of high-temperature SOI VLSICs in space, including immunity to transient and single-event upset (SEU), is also addressed. while a large number of practical issues remain to be resolved, no fundamental barrier against the successful development of VLSICs on SOI for use in very-high-power space nuclear reactor systems has been identified. View full abstract»

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      A MOS SwitchedCapacitor Ladder Filter in SIMOX Technology for High Temperature Applications up to 300C

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 323 - 329
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This paper describes techniques and methods used to realize a seventh order switched-capacitor low pass filter in SIMOX technology. The filter has Bessel characteristic and a 3 dB-bandwidth of 20 Hz at a clock frequency of 100 kHz. Special design of transistors and transmission gates results in drastically reduced leakage currents at high temperatures. The power supply voltage of the switched-capacitor filter is 10 V. The temperature range is extended up to 300° C. Experimental results of the transistors, the transmission gates, the operational amplifier, and the complete filter are presented. View full abstract»

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      The Effect of Temperature on Lateral DMOS Transistors in a Power IC Technology

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 330 - 335
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A systematic study of the effects of elevated temperature on the lateral DMOS power transistors in a power integrated circuit technology is presented. Acomprehensive experimental characterization of the important LDMOS electrical parameters over the temperature range 30-300°C is reported. Simple, analytic models are used to explain the observed behavior and to offer physical insight into the effects of temperature on LDMOS performance. A novel test structure is utilized to unambiguously separate channel-region effects from drift-region effects. Using this structure it is shown that the LDMOS channel mobility follows a T -2.5 temperature dependence, which is significantly more severe than the T -1.5 dependence of conventional CMOS channel mobility. Other key temperature- dependent parameters include the threshold voltage, on-state resistance, saturation current, breakdown voltage, and leakage current, which is shown to place a fundamental limitation on the high-temperature operation of the LDMOS transistor. View full abstract»

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      200C Operation of Semiconductor Power Devices

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 336 - 341
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      There is a growing need for commercial and military power electronics to operate above 175°C. Changes in operating parameters at 200°C have been measured for four devices, an N-P-N bipolar junction transistor (BJT), an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), an N-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), and a P-type MOS controlled thyristor (MCT). Using the results of these measurements, power supplies have been built using IGBT's and MOSFET's and operated at an ambient temperature of 200°C for up to 72 h. View full abstract»

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      MediumBandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 343
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Compound Semiconductors for HighTemperature Electronic ApplicationsThis work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DEAC0476DPOO789 for Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences.

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 362 - 367
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Compound semiconductor technology is reviewed as it relates to high-temperature electronic device applications. The electrical requirements of majority and minority carrier device types are examined and sixcompound semiconductor materials are presented which are capable of operation above 300°C. The state of the technological development of each of these materials is then reviewed, and several potential application areas of compound semiconductors are suggested. Finally, the high-temperature characteristics of devices fabricated in four of these chemical systems are displayed, and conclusions are drawn on the near term commercialization of this technology. View full abstract»

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      Fabrication and HighTemperature Characteristics of IonImplanted GaAs Bipolar Transistors and RingOscillators

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 368 - 371
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      GaAs bipolar transistors and ring-oscillators were fabricated by ion implantation into VPE structures. The transistor and circuit performance was tested between 25°C and 400°C. Leakage currents determine the useful temperature range. Present GaAs circuits fail at approximately 390°C due to the metallization technology. View full abstract»

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      Microwave Characterization and Comparison of Performance of GaAs Based MESFETs, HEMTs and HBTs Operating at High Ambient Temperatures

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 372 - 377
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      For the FIRST time microwave measurements at ambient temperatures up to 300°C have been performed on especially fabricated GaAs MESFETs, GaAs/AlGaAs HEMTs and HBTs, designed for continous operation at ambient temperatures up to 300°C with high reliability. A technology is presented which allows the realization of MESFET, HEMT and HBT device performance at elevated ambient temperatures. Ohmic and Schottky contacts have been realized with Ni-Ge-Au-Ni-W5-Si2-Au and LaB6-Au, respectively. These results open new possibilities for various applications of such transistors. View full abstract»

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      Evaluation of A1xGa1xAs for HighTemperature Electronic Junction Device Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 378 - 383
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Mes-isolated, p+nn+, GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs (0.10<x<0.5), double-heterojunction diodes are examined over the full temperature range from 50 to 400°C. AlxGa1-xAs is selectively used to suppress reverse junction leakage. GaAs is used for heterojunction contacts and as an encapsulant for the chemically reactive AlxGa1-xAs. An AlAs concentration of approximately 30% was found to provide significant improvements in the high-temperature reverse junction leakage (compared to GaAs homojunctions) without the necessity of going to higher values of x, Extending the diode work to three-terminal devices, a heterojunction- collector bipolar junction transistor was fabricated. These results demonstrate that AlxGa1-xAs coupled with GaAs for contacting and encapsulation is a good materials system for high-temperature junction device applications. View full abstract»

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      A GaAs Integrated Differential Amplifier for Operation up to 300C

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 384 - 386
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A technology for GaAs integrated circuits for operation up to 300°C is presented. As an example a differential amplifier with a temperature compensated current source was fabricated and characterized at d.c. and at frequencies up to 5 MHz. The measured d.c. voltage gain shows good stability up to 300°C.The decrease in a.c. signal amplification with temperature is constant for all frequencies. No degradation of the performance was observed after prolonged periods of thermal stress. View full abstract»

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      AIGaAs/GaAs/AIGaAs DHBT's for HighTemperature Stable Circuits

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 387 - 389
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      High-temperature devices are required for a large number of industrial applications. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a high temperature operating circuit on GaAs an operational amplifier was designed and fabricated. A corresponding technology for transistors and circuits for operation up to 300°C with AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs DHBT's is presented. For the amplifier circuit an open loop gain of 49.5 dB at room temperature and 35.8 dB at 200°C was measured, which is in good agreement with the circuit simulation. Hightemperature stability has been proven by a storage test at 400°C over 1000 h for the ohmic contact metallization and 200 h for the transistors. View full abstract»

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      Technology Towards GaAs MESFETbased IC for High Temperature Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 390 - 394
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A GaAs MESFET technology for the fabrication of devices, specially developed for continuous, reliable operation at high temperatures is presented. The technology is based on highly stable ohmic and Schottky contacts containing WSiN diffusion barriers and is optimized towards minimum temperature induced leakage currents across the substrate or along the semiconductor surface. The isolation of individual devices on chip is accomplished by multiple implantations of O++-ions at different energies. Drain/source leakage currents at high temperatures are significantly reduced due to the use of GaAs epitaxial MESFET wafers with an AIAs/GaAs superlattice structure followed by a p--buffer. MESFETs, fabricated by using this technology, have been optimized to match the requirements for continuous operation at high temperatures up to 300°C and have been successfully implemented in high temperature MMICs. Microwave circuits such as mixers, buffer amplifiers and voltage controlled oscillators aswell as operational amplifiers have been realized and characterized at temperatures up to 300°C. © 1997 Elsevier Science S.A. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Electronics Using Complementary Heterostructure FET (CHFET) Technology

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 395 - 400
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The characteristics of Complementary Heterostructure FET (CHFET) devices and logic circuits to 500 °C are reponed. Several features of the CHFET's Al0.75GaAs/In0.25GaAs/GaAs heterostructure were found to improve PET operation at high temperatures. The n-channel CHFET maintained an extrinsic transconductance Gmin excess of 100 mS/mm at 500 °C and gate leakage was 5-10x lower than for bulk GaAs MESFETs. The CHFET heterostructure also provides a complementary p-channel PET which was temperature-tested. Buffered CHFET ring oscillators maintained propagation delays of 320 pS/gate at 400 °C with no degradation after 50 hours. Suggestions are offered to reduce sub-threshold leakage which limited the performance of devices in thisstudy. View full abstract»

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      Low Leakage GaAs MESFET Devices Operating at 350C Ambient Temperature

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 401 - 406
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      GaAs MESFET devices were fabricated and tested at 350°C and exhibited excellent current saturation, low output conductance, and less than 10 A of substrate leakage current at 350°C. The total drain current at pinchoff was 80 A of which 70 A was due to gate leakage. This was accomplished with the use of an AlAs buffer which provides a high resistance layer in series with the substrate resistance and markedly decreases the source-drain current that can pass underneath the FET channel through the substrate at elevated temperatures. View full abstract»

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      Modelling IIIDevices Operating at 300400C

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 407 - 415
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The need for electronic equipment capable of operation in a high temperature ambient environment (300°C and above) has been well reported in the literature. Bulk silicon (Si) devices are widely regarded as having, at best, a maximum operating temperature of 250°C. The two most likely technologies that have emerged as possible candidates for electronic devices which are capable of operation above the silicon ambient limit and are suitable for manufacture in the short term are Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Silicon on Insulator (SOI). Detailed simulations of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs devices have been performed which give a clear picture of their high temperature characteristics and failure mechanisms. A Back Wall Heterojunction (BWHFET) device has been designed which shows significant improvements over standard silicon and GaAs devices at 300°C. The stability of GaAs devices in 300 - 400°C ambient temperatures is also considered. Finally the performance of GaAs technology is compared to that of Sal, to determine which technology offers the highest potential for reliable high temperature electronics in the short term. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Performance and Operation of HFET's

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 419 - 421
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The high temperature performance of Al0.75Ga0.25As/In0.25Ga0.75As/GaAs Complementary Heterojunction FET's (CHFET's) is reported between 25 and 500°C. Both experimental and modeled devices have shown acceptable digital characteristics to 400°C. Digital logic circuits have also been shown to operate at temperatures of over 400°C. This strongly suggests that GaAs based devices are capable of satisfying high temperature electronics requirements in the 125-400°C range. Two dimensional physically based modeling has been used to understand the high temperature operation of the HFET's. This work has shown that the devices suffer from gate limited drain leakage currents at elevated ambient temperatures. This off-state leakage current is higher than anticipated. Simulation has shown that, although forward gate leakage currents are reduced with the heterostructure device design, the reverse current is not. View full abstract»

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      Recent Advances in Gallium Phosphide Junction Devices for HighTemperature Electronic Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 422 - 429
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Recent advances in gallium phosphide technology are reviewed as tbey relate to bigh-temperature (T < 300°C) device applications. The electronic properties and materials aspects of GaP are summarized and compared to silicon and gallium arsenide. Minoritycarrier junction devices are discussed as one area where this technology could have. wide application. In tbis light, the hightemperature operation of two junction devices, a diode and a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), are displayed. The GaP diode is observed to provide excellent rectification properties with very low leakage over the full temperature range from 20°C to 400°C >3 x 10-3 A/cm2 at VR = 3 V, T = 400°C) and has demonstrated stable operation under bias for over 1000 h at 300°C. The bipolar transistor has demonstrated constant current pin (6 < < 10) and very low collector-base leakage for temperatures up to 450°C (IC0 < 80 A at VCB = 3 V, T = 450°C). The contacting technology to GaP is identified as one area where additional work is necessary. View full abstract»

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      A GaP MESFET for High Temperature Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 430 - 432
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A process for fabricating GaP metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFET's) capable of operating at temperatures of up to 295°C has been developed. The characteristics of the fabricated devices suggest a need for tighter control and further research involving channel doping and thickness uniformity as well as drain and source durability. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Gallium Phosphide Field Effect Transistors

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 433 - 434
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Characteristics of AlAs/GaAs/AlAs Resonant Thnneling Diodes

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 435 - 444
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This article reports the high-temperature de characteristics of double-barrier AlAs/GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diodes, over the temperature range 22°C to 185°C. The negative differential resistance of these quantum-well structures persisted up to the highest temperature; over this temperature range of 163°C, the peak current increased slightly (5%), but the valley current increased significantly (180%), resulting in a reduction of the peak-to-valley current ratio from 3.5 at 22°C to 1.3 at 185°C. The slight change in the peak current indicated that the diodes were of high quality and that tunneling was the dominant conduction mechanism. The difference between the voltage at the valley and at the peak decreased from 115mV at 22°C to 80 mV at 185°C. Between 125°C and 185°C, the valley current as a function oftemperature could be fitted to an Arrhenius-type dependence with an activation energy of 120meV.Although these quantum-well diodes appear usable to at least 185°C, the temperature dependence of the peak-to-valley current ratio and voltage difference would significantly affect their performance, such as switching speed, oscillator power, or cutoff frequency, for digital or analog circuit applications at high temperatures. View full abstract»

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      LargeBandgap Semiconductor Materials and Devices

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 445
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature PointContact Transistors and Schottky Diodes Formed on Synthetic BoronDoped Diamond

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 460 - 462
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Point-contact transistors and Schottky diodes have been formed on synthetic boron-doped diamond. This is the FIRST report of diamond transistors that have power gain. Further. the transistors exhibited power gain at 510°C and the Schottky diodes were operational at 700°C. View full abstract»

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      Diamond ThinFilm Recessed Gate FieldEffect Transistors Fabricated by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 463 - 465
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A new technique for etching boron-doped homoepi- taxial diamond films was used to fabricate mesa-isolated recessed gate field-effect transistors that operate at temperatures up to 350°C. The upper temperature range is limited by the gate leakage current. The room-temperature hole concentration and mobility of the diamond film active layer were 1.2 x 1013 cm-3 and 280 cm2/V · s, respectively. The maximum transconductance was 87 lS / mm at 200°C. View full abstract»

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      Diamond FieldEffect Transistors

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 466 - 477
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Metal-oxide-serniconductor field-effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated using B-doped diamond thin films deposited on polycrystalline, (100) highly-oriented, and single crystal diamond insulating substrates. Diamond films were grown using a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. Various electrical and materials characterization techniques were employed to confirm that the films exhibited properties suitable for FET fabrication. Devices with gate lengths and widths of 2 m and 314 m respectively, were processed using standard photolithography. Silicon dioxide was used as the gate dielectric. Current-voltage characteristics of these devices have been measured during variable temperature cycling in air. Devices fabricated on the randomly oriented polycrystalline diamond substrates have been operated to 285°C. Fieldeffect transistors fabricated using the highly-oriented diamond substrates have been characterized to 400°C. Single crystal diamond devices exhibited saturation and pinch-off of the channel current at temperatures up to 500-C. These devices have been biased in amplifier circuit configurations that have been characterized from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. Single crystal FETs exhibited Voltage gain over an extended temperature range. Transconductances as large as 1.7 mS/mm have been observed. The electronic properties, fabrication technologies, and performance of devices fabricated on the three diamond substrate materials will be discussed and compared. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature dc and RF Performance of pType Diamond MESFET: Comparison with NType GaAs MESFET

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 478 - 480
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The de and RF performance of a p-type diamond MESFET is simulated and compared with the simulated performance of an n-type GaAs MESFET over the operating temperature range, 300-923 K. Power performance of a diamond MESFET is shown to improve with increasing temperature and to exceed that of a GaAs MESFET when operated at temperatures higher than 550 K. At 923 K the simulated diamond MESFET produces about 0.8 W/mm of output power for an operating frequency of 5 GHz. Small signal current gain for a diamond MESFET is also found to increase with temperature. The cut-ott frequency, fT' of a diamond MESFET at 923 K is comparable with that of a GaAs MESFET at room temperature. It is concluded that microwave power applications of MESFET's in p-type diamond but otherwise conventional design is limited to high temperature. View full abstract»

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      Cubic Boron Nitride PN Junction Diode Made at High Pressure as a High Temperature Diode and an Ultraviolet LED

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 481 - 484
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The temperature difference method was applied to grow a large crystal of cubic boron nitride (cBN) under 55 kbar and 1700°C using LiCaBN2 as a solvent. cBN crystals of 3 mm in size were obtained. A pnjunction diode of cBN was then fabricated by growing a silicon-doped n-type crystal epitaxially on a beryllium-doped p-type seed crystal. Formation of the pn junction was clearly confirmed by rectification characteristics and by the existence of a space charge layer of the junction as observed by electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurement. The rectification characteristics were observed from room temperature to 650° C. Injection luminescence was observed at the cBN pn junction. Microscopic observation showed that the whitish blue light was emitted only in the forward-bias condition. Spectroscopic studies revealed that the spectra had a peak in the ultraviolet and the shortest observed wavelength was 215 nm. View full abstract»

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      GaN FETs for Microwave and HighTemperature Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 485 - 488
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The d.c., microwave, and high-temperature characteristics of Si-doped MESFETs with and without n+ ohmic contact layers, Si3N4/GaN MISFETs, and AIN/GaN HFETs are presented. The highest transconductance and microwave performance were observed for 1 m gate-length HFETs. These HFETs have a transconductance of 45 mS/mm, an fT of 8 GHz, and an fmax of 22 GHz. The Si-doped MESFETs have good pinch-off characteristics at 400°C and are operational at 500°C. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd View full abstract»

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      GaN Based Transistors for High Temperature Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 489 - 493
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      We review theoretical and experimental results for GaN-based field effect transistors (FET) and discuss their potential for high temperature applications. We demonstrate that a decrease in ionized impurity scattering with an increase in temperature makes AIGaN-GaN DC-HFET to be superior candidates for high temperature applications. In these devices, a large sheet carrier concentration in the device channel allows us to obtain a relatively low parasitic series resistance and to achieve superior de and ac performance (with the cutoff frequency times gate length product of 18.3 GHz x m demonstrated recently by our group at room temperature). © 1997 Elsevier Science S.A. View full abstract»

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      500C Operation of a GaN/SiC Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 494 - 495
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Whatever Happened to Silicon Carbide

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 496 - 500
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Silicon carbide has been used extensively as an abrasive, but only in the last 25 years has its potential as a semiconductor been exploited. The rationale for SiC semiconductor devices is their high temperature performance. Rectifiers, field effect transistors, charged particle detectors, and other devices operate efficiently at temperatures about 800 K. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the progress made in SiC devices in the 1955-1975 time frame and suggest reasons for the present lack of interest in this unique material. The data given in this paper has been abstracted from previously published work. View full abstract»

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      Characterization of Device Parameters in HighTemperature MetalOxide Semiconductor FieldEffect Transistors in SiC Thin Films

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 501 - 510
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Both inversion- and depletion-mode n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated on -SiC thin films grown by chemical-vapor deposition. The inversion-mode devices were made on in situ doped (A1) p-type -SiC(100) thin films grown on Si(100) substrates. The depletion-mode MOSFETs were made on n-type -SiC( 111) thin films grown on the Si(0001) face of a 6H -SiC substrates. Stable saturation and low subthreshold currents were achieved at drain-source voltages exceeding 5 and 25 V for the inversion-mode and depletion-mode devices, respectively. The transconductance increased with temperat0ure up to 673 K for the short-gate-length devices, of either mode, and then decreased with further increases in temperature. It is proposed that the transconductances and threshold voltages for the inversion-mode devices are greatly affected by minority-carrier injection from the source. Stable transistor action was observed for both types of devices at temperatures up to 823 K, with the depletion-mode devices operating very well up to 923 K. View full abstract»

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      Status of Silicon Carbide (SiC) as a WideBandgap Semiconductor for HighTemperature Applications: A Review

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 511 - 524
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Silicon carbide (SiC), a material long known with potential for high-temperature, high-power, high-frequency, and radiation hardened applications, has emerged as the most mature of the wide-bandgap (2.0 eV Eg 7.0 eV) semiconductors since the release of commercial 6H-SiC bulk substrates in 1991 and 4H-SiC substrates in 1994. Following a brief introduction to SiC material properties, the status of SiC in terms of bulk crystal growth, unit device fabrication processes, device performance, circuits and sensors is discussed. Emphasis is placed upon demonstrated high-temperature applications, such as power transistors and rectifiers, turbine engine combustion monitoring, temperature sensors, analog and digital circuitry, flame detectors, and accelerometers. While individual device performances have been impressive (e.g. 4H-SiC MESFETs with fmax of 42 GHz and over 2.8W mm-1 power density; 4H-SiC static induction transistors with 225W power output at 600 MHz, 47% power added efficiency (PAE), and 200 V forward blocking voltage), material defects in SiC, in particular micropipe defects, remain the primary impediment to wide-spread application in commercial markets. Micropipe defect densities have been reduced from near the 1000 cm-2 order of magnitude in 1992 to 3.5 cm-2 at the research level in 1995. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd View full abstract»

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      Analysis of Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 525 - 529
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The purpose of this paper is to define the drift region properties of SiC based rectifiers and MOSFETs to achieve breakdown voltages ranging from 50 to 5000 volts. Using these values, the output characteristics of these devices have been calculated. It has been found that 5000 volt SiC Schottky rectifiers and power MOSFETs would operate with a forward drop of less than 2 volts due to the very low drift region resistance. This value is superior to even that for silicon P-i-N rectifiers and Gate-Turn-Off Thyristors. This is the FIRST time that it has been shown that SiC based devices could outperform the entire spectrum of silicon based power devices. View full abstract»

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      Analysis of Neutron Damage in HighTemperature Silicon Carbide JFETs

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 530 - 540
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Neutron-induced displacement damage effects in n-channel, depletion-mode junction-fleld-effect transistors (JFETs) fabricated on 6H-silicon carbide are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300°C. The data are analyzed in terms of a refined model that folds in recently reported information on the two-level ionization energy structure of the nitrogen donors. A value of 5 ± 1 cm-3 per n/cm2 is obtained for the deep-level defect introduction rate induced by the neutron irradiation. Due to partial ionization of the donor atoms at RT, the carrier removal rate is a function of temperature, varying from 3.5 cm-1 at RT to 4.75 cm-1 at 300°C. The relative neutron effect on carrier mobility varies with temperature approximately as T-7/2, dropping by an order of magnitude at 300°C compared with the RT effect. The results offer further support for the use of SiC devices in applications which combine high-temperature and severe radiation environments, where the use of Si and GaAs technologies is limited. View full abstract»

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      Dynamic Charge Storage in 6H Silicon Cartnde

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 541 - 542
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      pn-junction storage capacitors have been fabricated in 6H silicon carbide. The charge decay is dominated by surface generation at the mesa edges, and the storage time strongly depends on the method of surface passivation. Charge recovery is thermally activated. Devices passivated by dry oxidation and by wet oxidation exhibit activation energies of 0.66 and 1.48 eV, respectively. As a figure of merit, extrapolation of the dry-oxide data gives a room-temperature storage time of 106 s, while extrapolation of the wet-oxide data gives a room-temperature storage time of 1014 s. View full abstract»

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      Monolithic NMOS Digital Integrated Circuits in 6HSiC

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 543 - 545
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      We report the FIRST digital monolithic integrated circuits in the wide bandgap semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC). These logic gates are implemented in enhancement-mode NMOS using ion implanted MOSFET's with non-self-aligned metal gates. We have fabricated and characterized inverters, NAND and NOR gates, XNOR gates, D-latches, RS flip-flops, binary counters, and half adders. All circuits operate properly from room temperature to over 300°C View full abstract»

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      Metallizations for Semiconductor Devices

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 547
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Amorphous Metallizations for HighTemperature Semiconductor Device Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 571 - 574
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      In this paper we present the initial results of work on a new class of semiconductor metallizations which appear to hold great promise as primary metallizations and diffusion barriers for high-temperature device applications. These metallizations consist of sputter-deposited films of high- Tg amorphous-metal alloys which (primarily because of the absence of grain boundaries) exhibit exceptionally good corrosion resistance and low diffusion coefficients. Amorphous films of the alloys Ni-Nb, Ni-Mo, W-Si, and Mo-Si have been deposited on Si, GaAs, GaP, and various insulating substrated, The films adhere extremely well to the substrates and remain amorphous during thermal cycling to at least 500°C. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) measurements indicate atomic diffusivities in the 10- 19 cm 2/S range at 450°C. View full abstract»

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      Reliability of High Temperature I2L Integrated Circuits

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 575 - 581
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Silicon based I2 L circuits have survived a life test for over 5000 hours at 340° C without degradation. These chips used aluminum metallization with current densities below 10,000 ampl sq.cm to avoid electromigration failures. The need for a gold based metal system for high temperature applications has lead to the development of Ti-W diffusion barriers which have withstood temperatures of 360°C for longer than 3500 hours without change. MSI integrated circuits with a Ti-W/Au metallization system have withstood stress tests of over 2000 hours at 360° C. Gold hillock formation has been shown to be caused by the compressive strains induced in the gold film by thermal expansion mismatches. The driving force for gold hillock formation may be eliminated by depositing the gold film at elevated temperatures. View full abstract»

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      Gallium Phosphide DevicesThis work was sponsored by Sandia Laboratory for the division of Geothermal Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 582 - 585
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Reliability of High Temperature Metallizations with Amorphous Ternary Diffusion Barriers

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 586 - 591
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Thin rums of amorphous Ta-Si-N alloys were deposited by reactive sputtering of a Ta5Si3 target in an Ar/N2 ambient. These alloy films were tested as diffusion barriers between Al and Si, Cu and Si, as well as between Au and Si. Electrical measurements on shallow n+p junction diodes were used to evaluate the thermal stability of the Si/Ta36Si14N50(80 nm)/Al(500 nm), Si/Ta36Si14N50(80 nm)/Cu(500 nm)/Ta36Si14N50(30 nm) and Si/Ta36Si14N50(110 nm)/Au(280 nm) metallizations. Results of ongoing experiments indicate that after 1000 hrs annealing at 350°C in argon the Ta36Si14N50 amorphous films still maintain the integrity of the i I(V) characteristics of the shallow junction. The. surface morphology of the diodes is studied using scanning electron microscopy. View full abstract»

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      MetalGaAs Interaction and Contact Degradation in Microwave MESFETs

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 592 - 609
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This work reports and critically reviews failure mechanisms induced by metal-GaAs interaction and contact degradation in low and medium power GaAs MESFETs in the framework of a comprehensive reliability evaluation test plan, performed mainly on commercially purchased devices manufactured by different technologies. The results show that, at least as regards contact degradation phenomena, these technologies have reached sufficient maturity, and significant reliability levels have been achieved even for the most severe applications and environments. Devices coming from some suppliers still suffer from reliability problems, such as sinking of Au-based gate metallization into the active channel, Al electromigration, Al/GaAs interdiffusion enhanced by high contact current density, source and drain ohmic contact resistance increase, ohmic contacts electromigration, surface metal migration and short circuiting of closely spaced electrodes on GaAs with a non-suitable surface preparation and/or passivation. All these failure mechanisms have been identified by means of suitable microanalytical techniques, correlated with device electrical degradation and thoroughly discussed in this paper by comparison with results previously reported in the technical literature. View full abstract»

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      A New GaAs Technology for Stable FET's at 300C

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 610 - 612
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A tecbnology for tbe fabrication of GaAs devices for operation at 300°C is presented. The high reliability of the devices is mainly due to a diffusion barrier of WSi2 in the ohmic contacts and to an optimized Si3N4 passivation. It is shown that MESFET's produced with this technology demonstrate a remarkable stability of their characteristics, even after 1000 h of storage at 300°C, and only a little degradation after 100 h at 400°C. View full abstract»

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      New Technology Developments for IIIV Semiconductor Devices Operating Above 300C

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 613 - 618
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      In this paper reliability problems of ohmic contacts and Schottky contacts to GaAs are discussed. Diffusion barriers based on LaB6 and HfC are used to achieve high temperature stability. Additionally the bipolar mode field effect transistor (BMFET) is proposed as a high temperature device because of its nearly temperature independent properties. View full abstract»

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      Refractory SelfAlignedGate GaAs FET Based Circuit Technology for High Ambient Temperatures

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 619 - 624
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Recent progress in the development of a hightemperature (300-400 °C) GaAs FET-based IC technology is reported. The development goal is a robust temperature-hard integrated circuit technology for data acquisition, processing, digitalcontrol and microwave rf applications. Our development approach retrofits an existing (1 m) self-aligned-gate (SAG) MESFET process with temperature-hard ohmic contacts, a modified channel implant andgate sidewall spacers to allow FET operation and stability at temperatures to 400 °C. We report temperature stablity of the low contactresistance non-Au ohmic, a key for stable device operation. Electrical characteristics of 1.1 m gate length FETs measured from 27- 400 °C after 400°C temperature stress arepresented; modeling the characteristics is discussed. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Ohmic and Schottky Contacts to NType 6HSiC Using Nickel

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 625 - 631
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      We report specific contact resistances measured at elevated temperatures for Ni ohmic contacts to 6H-SiC. The specific contact resistances were measured with the linear transmission line method at both room temperature and at 773 K and yielded values > 5 x 10-6 -cm2 at both temperatures. The trend shows a decreasing contact resistance at higher temperatures. The annealed metal film is a nickel silicide with substantial mixing of C throughout the silicide layer. Also reported are the results of I-V and C-V barrier height measurements for Ni Schottky contacts to 6H-SiC. Current-voltage barrier heights as high as 1.2 eV have been measured, and the contacts show good electrical and physical stability following long-term anneals at 573 K in a vacuum ambient of 10-6 torr. These ohmic and Schottky contacts have been developed by the CCDS in collaboration with the Air Force and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and transfer of our contact technology to the Westinghouse Science and Technology is now complete. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Contacts to Chemically Vapour Deposited Diamond FilmsReliability Issues

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 632 - 636
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Refractory metals (Ti, Mo, Wand Ta) with precious metal overlayers (Au and Pt) were used to form ohmic contacts to polycrystalline boron doped chemically vapour deposited diamond films. Refractory metals afford high resistance to thermal and environmenal stresses. In addition, many refractory metals show a chemical affinity for carbon, resulting in the formation of a metal-carbide reaction layer with reduced Schottky barrier height at the contact interface. Low resistance ohmic contacts can be formed by heavy boron doping of the diamond film in the contact region. The viability and reliability of various refractory metal contact schemes were assessed to determine their upper operating temperatures and life expectancies in hostile environments. Reverse engineering of the contacts and detailed material analysis revealed likely failure mechanisms. It was found that Mo/Au gave the highest degree of thermal stability, while Ti gave the lowest contact resistance. The contact resistance was strongly dependent on the doping level of the diamond film View full abstract»

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      Passive Components

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 637
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Batteries for HighTemperature Electronics

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 660 - 666
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Increasing numbers of applications require electronic circuits and devices that can operate in environments that have temperatures considerably above room temperature. If there are no convenient sources of power, a battery provides a ready source for such needs. This article describes the basic components and characteristics of electrochemical cells, the variety of chemistries that are available for battery systems, the presently available technology for powering devices at environmental temperatures up to 200°C, and the options for future developments to allow operation above this temperature. View full abstract»

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      Hybrid Microcircuitry for 300 Operation

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 667 - 672
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Microelectronic instrumentation for geothermal well logging must operate in ambient temperatures up to 300°C for several hundred hours. This study involved an extensive survey of 25 to 300°C operation of resistors, capacitors, conductors, interconnections, and active devices. Three major selection criteria were: 1) part lifetime of at least 1000 h at 300°C; 2) minimum change in electrical parameters from 25 to 300°C; 3) availability to the common circuit builder (no one of a kind). Certain thick film resistors, capacitors, and conductors were found compatible with such high-temperature operation. In addition, reconstituted mica and aluminum solid electrolytic capacitors were found useful up to 300°C. Simple circuits for a geothermal temperature logging tool have been fabricated using these hybrid materials, components, and Si MOS and JFET devices. Oven tests show satisfactory stability from 25 to 300°C and at least 100-h circuit operation at 300°C. View full abstract»

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      Investigations in Thick Film Components for High Temperature Systems

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 673 - 678
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      In the near future electronic systems and circuits which are able to work at high temperatures will be used for sensor and actuator applications, especially where cooling is not possible or very difficult. A second reason for developing high temperature sensor systems is to avoid long signal ways between sensor and signal processing electronic in order to improve EMC-properties. Using thick film hybrid technology provides an easy way of constructing high temperature electronics. But normally thick film components are not specified for temperatures higher than 423 K. Our goal is to characterize and to optimize thick film components for a large temperature range. In order to get information about high temperature behaviour, it is necessary to use suitable testing techniques. This report will introduce some methods like linear test or step stress test which allow accelerated life tests in order to extract the temperature coefficient as well as the behaviour of degradation. In case of thick films, results for preselections can be easily obtained. Results of examined thick film resistors tested up to 773 K will be presented as an example. View full abstract»

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      Fabrication of Passive Components for HighTemperature Instrumentation

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 679 - 682
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Thin-film resistors and capacitors have been fabricated for use in geothermal well-logging tools. The resistors can operate from 25°C-500°C with a temperature coefficient below 100 ppm/°C; capacitors can operate from 25°C-350°C with a similar temperature coefficient. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used to fabricate both resistors and capacitors. The processing is compatible with most microcircuit processes; and resistors, capacitors, interconnecting metallization, and passivation are all produced by CVD and can be integrated on a single substrate. Resistor material is tungsten-silicon, capacitor electrodes and metallization are tungsten, and dielectric material is silicon nitride. Photolithography is used to delineate component geometry. View full abstract»

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      Thermal Degradation and Termination Behavior of Thick Film Resistors

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 683 - 690
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Thermal stability was measured for Du Pont 1420 (102 ohims/square), Du Pont 1440 (104 ohms/square), Cermalloy 540 (104 ohms/square), and Cermalloy 550 (105 ohms/square) thick film resistor materials. Samples were aged at 200, 300 and 400°c. In addition, effects of resistor-conductor termination area, laser trimming, and applied bias voltage on thermal stability were evaluated. For 200 and 300°C exposure, the sheet resistivity increased for all materials. Maximum increase after 5000 hours exposure as +8%. For 400°C exposure, sheet resistivity decreased for all materials. Maximum decrease was -20% for 5000 hours exposure. The termination region had no significant effect on either asfired resistance or thermal degradation behavior. Laser trimming tended to stabilize resistors slightly and applied bias voltage had no significant effect. View full abstract»

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      Thermal Aging of ThickFilm Resistors

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 691 - 693
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The paper reports the results of a systematic study of the effects of thermal ageing in thick-film resistors (TFRs) over a wide temperature range (from 125°C to 4O0°C). The relative change of resistance R/R was studied as a function of ageing temperatures and times. TCR and excess noise index before and after ageing processes were also measured. These electrical properties were investigated on samples prepared in the same way, except for the substrate, the latter being in all cases 96% alumina, taken from five different suppliers. A systematic difference in R/ R for the same ageing conditions is observed in samples on different substrates. The relative change of resistance is positive after ageing at lower temperatures up to very long times; it follows a square-root dependence and is thermally activated. At higher temperatures R/R is negative and follows a linear time dependence. Resistors with different thicknesses were also analysed; the thinner the sample, the larger is the R/R observed under the same ageing conditions. All these experimental findings must be considered in a comprehensive interpretative scheme of ageing mechanisms of TFRs on alumina substrates. View full abstract»

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      Electrical Characterization of Glass, Teflon, and Tantalum Capacitors at High Temperatures

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 694 - 699
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Dielectric materials and electrical components and devices employed in radiation fields and space environment are often exposed to elevated temperatures among other things. These systems must, therefore, withstand the high temperature exposure while still providing good electrical and other functional properties. In this work, experiments were carried out to evaluate glass, teflon, and tantalum capacitors for potential use in high temperature applications. The capacitors were characterized in terms of their capacitance and dielectric loss as a function of temperature up to 200 °C. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained in a frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed in a temperature range from 20 to 200 °C. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are made concerning the suitability of the capacitors investigated for high temperature applications. View full abstract»

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      Development of TemperatureStable ThickFilm Dielectrics: II. MediumK Dielectric

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 700 - 710
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A temperature-stable, medium dielectric constant (K = 100) thick-film dielectric is developed for high-temperature electronic instrumentation. A theoreneal model predicts a temperature-insensitive dielectric in the glass-Bi4Ti3O12-SrTiO3 system, while experimental results suggest an optimum composition in the glass-SrTiO3-BaTiO3 system. Interfacial polarization is the major factor which causes the devlatlon. The medium-K dielectric, when properly fired, terminated, and heattreated, can work adequately from 25°C to 400°C. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Performance of Polymer Film Capacitors

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 711 - 716
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The development of compact, thermally stable, high energy density, power conditioning capacitors has been identified to be one of the most difficult technological barriers in the design of high temperature electronic systems. High energy density capacitors are made of multiple, very thin layers of high dielectric constant insulating material. However, the polymer insulating films which are mechanically and electrically stable to the highest temperature, such as polyimide and teflon, also have the lowest dielectric constants and are the most difficult to make in very thin layers. This paper presents the collected results of research efforts to characterize and improve the high temperature performance of polymer capacitors. Temperature boundaries and the variation in dielectric properties with temperature and time are identified for a number of these films. View full abstract»

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      Materials for 300500C Magnetic Components

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 717 - 720
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Core materials and winding wire for audio and rf transformers have been investigated to 500°C. Audio cores of 2 V Permendur had parameter stabil ity from 25 to 500°C and during aging at 450°C. High frequency ferrite material, Mix 63, displayed usefulness up to 300°C. Both anodized al.umi.num and ceramiccoated copper wire function to 500°C in low voltage or large gauge applications. Components based on these materials operate reliably to 500°C. View full abstract»

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      A ZeroInsertionForce Hybrid Circuit Connector for Severe Environments

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 721 - 726
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A new packaging technology has been developed for complex electronic circuits used in the high-temperature high-vibration environment of oil-well logging instrumentation. Specifically, the design and testing of a 72-pin connector that operates with large area ceramic substrates carryiDg leadless chip-carrier (LCC) devices and other thick film components is considered. The emphasis is on achieving high mechanical and electrical integrity during exposure to severe stress, while allowing easy field replacement of defective hybrid circuits without the need for any special tools to opente the release mechanism. A combination of mechanical shock (100 g levels) aDd vibration (10 g) with an extreme operating temperature range ( - 55 to +200° C) requires care in the choice of materials and the solution of some special design problems. View full abstract»

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      Hybrid Materials, Assembly, and Packaging

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 727
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Pushing the Limit: The Rise of High Temperature Electronics

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 749 - 751
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Industry Activity
      Silicon Devices
      Capacitors
      Wires and Wirebonds
      Solders
      PCBs and Substrates
      Plastic Encapsulants and Housings
      Conclusion View full abstract»

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      Metallurgical Bonding Systems for HighTemperature Electronics

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 752 - 769
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The chip-to-package metallurgical interconnections that may be used in high-temperature electronic environments are described. These interconnections are primarily wire bonded, but include TAB(tape-automated bonding) where appropriate. Details of the most studied bonding system (Au-Al), with emphasis on its failure modes and mechanisms, are given FIRST for an understanding of the problems that may occur in interconnection metallurgies. Later, these failures are compared to many other possible metallurgical bonding systems that may be considered for hightemperature environments such as Al-Cu, Au-Cu, Ag-Au, Al-Ni, Au-Pd, Al-Pd, Al-Ag,and mono-metallic interconnections. The reliability considerations are discussed in terms of maximum temperatures and times in various high-temperature environments. Bond reliability at high temperatures is often dependent on any impurities in the weld interface as well as completeness of the weld. Therefore, these problems are discussed in context. View full abstract»

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      HighTemperature Electronics Packaging

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 770 - 775
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Using standard high-reliability hermetic packaging technology, microelectronics can be packaged to operate at 300°C for hundreds of hours. A number of straightforward variations on this standard technology should increase lifetimes by a factor of 10. Industrial trends decreasing the back-end processing temperatures of semiconductor devices, increasing operational junction temperatures in high-power devices, and widespread use of organic package encapsulation are increasing the difficulty of using off-the-shelf devices in systems intended for high temperature. However, the interest in adapting plastic parts for long-service military systems could make short-term operation of plasticpackaged devices at high temperature more dependable. In addition, the push to high-density multichip modules will force device and circuit designs toward more high-temperature capability. View full abstract»

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      Extreme Temperature Range Microelectronics

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 776 - 783
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Down-hole geothermal instrumentation must operate over a large temperature range. The technology and capabilities of room temperature to 300°C hybrid and printed-circuit (PC) board electronics that were developed during the last two years to meet that need are summarized. To ensure rapid widespread commercialization, this technology was developed, insofar as possible, using commerically available components, devices, and materials. Initial extensive high-temperature characterization revealed that selected thickfilm passive components and silicon junction-field-effect transistors had electrical parameters sufficiently insensitive to temperature change and sufficiently constant in time at high temperatures to form the backbone of this circuitry. Attachment techniques needed to be developed, since standard methods failed at high temperatures. Similarly, circuit design innovations were needed because of the restricted list of parts. Voltage regulators, line drivers, voltage comparators, special purpose amplifiers and multiplexers were constructed and operated over the 25-300°C temperature range. Temperature and pressure monitoring instruments using these circuits have been used for downhole measurements in geothermal wells. Methods of fabrication, circuit performance, and the scope of future work are discussed. View full abstract»

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      A 55C to +200C 12bit AnalogtoDigital Converter

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 784 - 789
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This paper describes the design of a 12-bit successive-approximation hybrid analog-to-digital (A/D) converter that is specified to operate over a temperature range of - 55°C to +200°C. This is an important development, especially for the oil well logging industry, since it is now possible to digitize the signal output from a transducer while it is downhole and thereby make the transmitted digital signal less susceptible to noise and interference. Details of the design and construction of the device as well as 1000-h life test data are presented. View full abstract»

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      Hybrid A/D Converter for 200C Operation

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 790 - 793
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This paper describes the design and development of a high performance hybrid 12 bit analog to digital converter, which will operate reliably at 200°C. A product of this type was found to be necessary in areas such as geothermal probing, oil-well logging, jet engine and nuclear reactor monitoring, and other appl ications where the environments may reach temperatures of up to 200°C. This product represents an advancement in electronics as it proved the operation of integrated circuits at high temperature, as well as providing information about both the electrical and mechanical re1 iabil ity of hybrid circuits at 200°C. Because the circuit design of the A/D converter involved both digital and linear circuitry, this produced an opportunity to evaluate the performance of both technologies at 200°C. Initial mechanical failure modes led to researching more reliable methods of wire bonding and die attachment. The result of this work was a 12 bit A/D converter which will operate at 200°C with .05% linearity, 1% accuracy, 350 Sec conversion time, and only 455mW power consumption. This product also necessitated the development oof a unique three metal system in which aluminum wire bonding is done utilizing aluminum bonding pads, gold wire bonding to all gold areas, and employment of a nickel interface between gold and aluminum connections. This sytem totally eliminates the formation of intermetallics at the bonding interface which can lead to bond failure. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Hybrids for use up to 275CDrift and Lifetime

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 794 - 797
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This paper reviews the drift and lifetime performance of 275°C hybrid microcircuits that were recently developed by Teledyne Philbrick and Sandia National Laboratories. This hybrid technology is based on temperature tolerant thick films and discrete silicon JFETs. The results of high temperature circuit testing are reviewed; component and circuit degradation and fail ure modes are described and compared to predictions; and finally, design rules are given to maximize lifetimes and to minimize performance drift for up to 10,000 hours of operation at 275°C. Although these circuits were developed for instrumenting geothermal bqreholes, many other applications for this technology exist in such areas as fossil fuel exploration and production systems, jet engine monitors, and nuclear reactor monitors. View full abstract»

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      A Hybrid Silicon Carbide Differential Amplifier for 350C Operation

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 798 - 804
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      An operational amplifier has been designed, fabricated, and tested at 350°C using silicon carbide MESFET pairs and thick film hybrid technology. The amplifier was successfully tested over the temperature range of 25-350°C. The gain of the amplifier was greater than 60 dB, the common-mode rejection ratio was greater than 55 dB, and the offset voltage varied from 139 to 159 mV over the entire temperature range. The results demonstrate the feasibility of high temperature circuit design and assembly using silicon carbide MESFET's and thick film hybrid technology. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Aluminum Nitride Packaging

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 805 - 810
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As is often the case, advances in electronics are dictated not by the IC devices themselves, but by the ability to package those devices. This is certainly the case for high temperature electronics. The limits of conventional packaging materials such as glass-epoxy circuit boards, plated copper traces and Sn-Pb solder are obvious at temperatures in excess of 300°C. Even standard ceramic packages based on Al2O3 are inadequate above 300°C. Novel materials and assembly techniques required for high temperature operation are presented in this paper. Factors such as thermal conductivity, expansion coefficients, oxidation and diffusion become more critical as operating temperatures increase, and therefore play major roles in determining package construction techniques. The evolution of high temperature package construction will be reviewed in light of these constraints. High temperature packages have been developed based on aluminum nitride (AIN) substrates and nickel metallization. Key features of the packages described in this paper are molded AIN bodies, directly bonded low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) frames and silver active braze seals, all of which contribute to producing hermetic packages at high temperatures. A discussion of interconnect metallurgies and attachment methods is included. Test data demonstrating the reliability of AIN high temperature packages will also be presented. View full abstract»

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      High Temperature Applications for IC Plastic Encapsulated Packages

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 811 - 815
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Recently, the trend has been toward higher device operating temperatures. Manufacturers are no longer satisfied with the 0ï¿¿C-to-70ï¿¿ C commercial range, but want products that are rated to 110ï¿¿C or 125ï¿¿C or greater temperature. This desire is driven by many factors, a prime one being automotive needs, where the operating temperature under the hood may reach 200ï¿¿C in the near future. However, such changes must be balanced with need for good reliability and without jeopardizing rated product life. In the case of plastic packages, this concern extends to its elevated temperature stability, both of the device and of the package, especially with respect to the epoxy molding compound. Compounds have made enormous improvements in reliability behavior over the years, under both moist and dry conditions, but still have some inherent shortcomings. For one, epoxy molding compounds are required to meet the Underwriter's Laboratories Flammability Rating of 94V-0. To meet that rating, bromine and antimony are often incorporated as flame retardants. Unfortunately, these elements can act as catalysts to accelerate the intcrmetalllic growth between the gold ball bond and the aluminium bond pad on the silicon chip. The intermetallic growth itself is not detrimental, but the secondary effects of Kirkendall voiding and thermal stresses between the interrnetallic layers are. This phenomenon is typically seen during high temperature storage life reliability testing. Also, many epoxy cresol novalac-based corn pounds have glass transition temperatures of around 150ï¿¿C, but the biphenyl-based compounds recently introduced may range as low as 120ï¿¿C. The question then becomes whether accelerated tests run at very high temperatures accurately reflect field failures. Resin breakdown and other effects manifest at these temperatures may never be seen in the field, yet these tests are re lied upon to indicate good reliability. Another issue to be resolved is finding the upper operating or ambient temperature limit for commercial products in plastic packages, and how to predict reliability and product life. A possible resolution to this concern is multi-functional-based molding compounds. Their glass transition temperatures are typically greater than 190ï¿¿C, insuring that even accelerated tests or high ambient operating temperatures should not affect the composition or the compound. Since the molding compound itself cannot be eliminated from plastic packages, ohviously, additional measures can be tried to meet the criteria. To insure reliable, long-lived products may also require changes in device design, thermal management. and bond pad metallizations and assembly processing, as well as improvements to the molding compound, to reach the criteria of reliable operation at elevated temperatures. Many aspects must be considered to insure adequate reliability while meeting the customers' requirements. In this study, comparisons were made between different compound chernistries-vcrcsol novolac, biphenyl, and multifunctional- using the High Temperature Storage Life Test, at 175ï¿¿C and at 200ï¿¿C. Static Operating Life Testing at 175ï¿¿C was also performed on the multi-functional compound. Failure analysis was performed on a sample of the tested units. However, with the testing temperatures above the glass transition temperatures, over-testing may be an issue and must be considered. View full abstract»

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      Electronics Packaging and Test Fixturing for the 500C Environment

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 816 - 821
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Those involved in the development and characterization of high temperature devices or systems know that there are very few commercially available components with which to construct sockets, bum-in cards, packages or associated test fixturing capable of withstanding extended periods of high temperature exposure. This is especially so when the test temperatures exceed 300°C. This paper will describe an approach to high temperature device testing and characterization used at the United Technologies Research Center to temperatures exceeding 500°C. The required packages, sockets and bum-in cards will be described and the basic fabrication sequence used to build them will be outlined. View full abstract»

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      Alternative Technologies

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 823
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Design Approaches for Core Memories Operating to 200C

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 831 - 836
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This article discusses design approaches to extending the operation of ferrite-core memories to the +200°C temperature range. It is shown that conventional circuitry is not suitable and that a systems approach-involving the memory element, memory array topology, support circuitry, and packaging-is necessary. Practical design issues are addressed along with product examples. View full abstract»

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      Thermionic Integrated Micromodules: TIMMS

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 837 - 838
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      GE Subminiatures with New HighResistivity Glass Show No Inoperatives after 2000Hr Tests at 300C

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 839
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Three Advanced Tubes Now in Production by G.E.
      Ready Soon: New Printboard Version of 7077 Triode View full abstract»

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      Development of Integrated Thermionic Circuits for HighTemperature Applications

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 840 - 844
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This paper describes a class of microminiature, thin-film devices known as integrated thermionic circuits (ITC) capable of extended operation in ambient temperatures up to 500°C. The evolution of the ITC concept is discussed. A set of practical design and performance equations is demonstrated. Recent experimental results are discussed in which both devices and simple circuits have successfully operated in 500°C environments for extended periods of time (greater than 11 000 h). View full abstract»

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      AnElectrochemical Transistor Using a Solid Electrolyte

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 845 - 847
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Transistor action has been observed at elevated temperatures (800 °C) with a structure composed of two ceramic ZrO2 electrochemical cells separated by an enclosed volume. One cell emits O2 from an ambient atmosphere into the volume (base region) where it is collected and returned to the ambient by the opposing cell. Electrical operation can be understood in terms of the current limitation presented by the Pt cathode of the collector cell. Small signal voltage, current, and power amplification are observed with a frequency response limited by the double-layer capacity of the collector. This approach to transistor action should be applicable to other solid-electrolyte systems. View full abstract»

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      Bibliography

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 849
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Author Index

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 875 - 877
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Subject Index

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 879 - 889
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      Reprint ReferenceCode Index

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 891
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»

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      About the Editor

      Randall Kirschman Page(s): 893
      Copyright Year: 1999

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society. View full abstract»