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Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2013
Author(s): Farina, D.; Jensen, W.; Akay, M.
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Bioengineering ;  Robotics & Control Systems ;  Signal Processing & Analysis
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      Front Matter

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.fmatter
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Series Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Contents
      Contributors
      Preface View full abstract»

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      Injuries of the Nervous System

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.part1
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Diseases and Injuries of the Central Nervous System Leading to Sensory-Motor Impairment

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch1
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems is associated with a loss of motor drive and a defective afferent input to the central nervous system (CNS). This chapter starts with a presentation of neuron injury. The injuries are categorized based on the extent and type of damage to the nerve and the surrounding connective tissue. The chapter addresses sensory - motor deficits that are caused by neuron injury or disease: (a) cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke, which causes impairments due to changes in blood supply to the brain; (b) spinal cord injuries (SCIs), which result in total or partial obstruction of flow of both sensory and motor information between the peripheral and central nervous systems; (c) nontraumatic disorders of the CNS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis); and (d) cerebral palsy (CP). Finally, the chapter presents the incidence of CNS diseases. View full abstract»

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      Peripheral and Spinal Plasticity after Nerve Injuries

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch2
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Peripheral nerves contain several types of nerve fibers, serving different functions. Peripheral nerve injuries induce a cascade of events, at the molecular, cellular, and system levels, that support axonal regeneration and target reinnervation in the periphery, but also imply plastic changes at the spinal cord and the brain. Mechanisms involved in these changes include alterations of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections, sprouting of new connections, and reorganization of sensory and motor maps in the nervous system. All these changes have to be considered when attempting to interact with the injured nervous system for rehabilitation strategies. View full abstract»

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      Motor Control Modules of Human Movement in Health and Disease

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch3
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Human movements exhibit considerable variability and are highly complex in terms of both neural activation and biomechanical output. However, much evidence now indicates that a relatively low-dimensional organizational structure may underlie the rich complexity of neuromechanical output by using a few motor modules or motor primitives. This chapter focuses on locomotion as one of the basic activities of everyday life. It discusses data and concepts that offer a new approach, based on the modular architecture of neuronal networks, to characterizing the mechanisms underlying control of human movements that may potentially benefit the study of pathological gait and the ability of current therapeutic exercises to change or optimize patient outcomes. In the case of locomotion, central pattern generators (CPGs) and rhythm generation networks can be considered as important functional units or modules that determine a variety of locomotor movements in health and disease. View full abstract»

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      Signal Detection and Conditioning

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.part2
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Progress in Peripheral Neural Interfaces

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch4
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Current developments in peripheral neural interfaces are facilitating their translation to clinical applications such as devices for use in human - machine interfaces (HMI) for advanced active prostheses. This chapter talks about the background of the anatomy of the nervous system, and then focuses mainly on the progress and methods used to address three challenges. The three challenges include (i) interface selectivity, (ii) device reach, and (iii) implanted device long-term stability and biocompatibility outlined for the extrafascicular and intrafascicular approaches. The chapter briefly discusses the state of the art of devices for each approach. Finally, it highlights the key advances such as the application of microfabrication techniques and the translation from animal to human. Advances in device modeling and cursory investigations of the use of nanotechnologies and the relevance of each in overcoming current issues of the state of the art are also discussed. View full abstract»

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      Multimodal, Multisite Neuronal Recordings for Brain Research

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch5
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The basically electrical nature of the brain's information processing opens a splendid way to learn about its details by using extracellular, microwire recordings to eavesdrop on the activity and information exchange among its neuronal constituents. This method has the advantage over glass micropipettes of bringing quite a sturdy probe into the vicinity of a more or less randomly selected neuron. With this method an immense volume of knowledge was acquired with single - and multiple-electrode recordings from the living brain. This chapter discusses the examples to illustrate that the technology of electrophysiological microrecordings - and for that matter stimulation as well-has come a long way toward multisite and minimally traumatic brain interfacing devices. However, the future of these technologies is even more exciting than the past, since the combination of electrical with optical modalities puts new procedures at the hands of neuroscientists and perhaps even clinical practitioners. View full abstract»

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      Surface Electromyogram Detection

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch6
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The electromyogram (EMG) is a compound signal comprising the electrical activity of the motor units (MU) activated asynchronously during voluntary muscle contractions. This chapter provides a basic overview of the technologies for the detection and conditioning of surface EMG (sEMG) signals. The first section focuses on electrode technology and the electrode-skin interface. The electrical model of the interface and the effect of electrode characteristics (e.g., size, constituent material) on the features of the detected signal are discussed. The second section describes the most common solutions for the design of the front-end amplifier, signal filtering, and analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. The third section describes and discusses the use of different configurations of electrodes for the detection of sEMG signals. The concepts of spatial filtering and spatial sampling (mono- and bi-dimensional) are introduced, and the effect of the detection system parameters on the sEMG characteristics is discussed. View full abstract»

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      Methods for Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Detection

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch7
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The electroencephalogram (EEG) provides a noninvasive way to record and analyze brain functions in real time. For brain - computer interfaces (BCIs), slow waves, evoked potentials, and activation in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands are used. When a real-time biosignal processing system is confi gured, several influencing components have to be considered. This chapter discusses EEG electrodes and electrode placement, lists possible sources of noise and artifacts, and explains how to avoid them. It explains the properties of biosignal amplifiers and analog-to-digital conversion. It also discusses possibilities for host computers and processing environments. Finally, examples of brain - computer interface (BCI) systems are given for rehabilitation and for brain mapping. View full abstract»

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      Spike Sorting

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch8
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Excitable cells, such as neurons, produce action potentials (APs) that in extracellular recordings are often referred to as spikes. The contributions of each cell must be isolated from the background noise and from those of the other cells. This chapter focuses on state-of-the-art techniques addressing the problem of spike sorting, including the resolution of overlapped action potentials (APs). It proposes the mathematical modeling of multiunit recordings and the complexity in the resolution of overlapped APs. Then, the summarizes state-of-the-art spike sorting algorithms and discusses the advantages and limitations of each and the applicability of these methods for different types of experimental demands. View full abstract»

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      Wavelet Denoising and Conditioning of Neural Recordings

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch9
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter presents wavelet-based denoising algorithms as a preprocessing stage before spike detection and sorting. The first part of the chapter overviews wavelet-based denoising algorithms. The dyadic wavelet transform is compared with a timeinvariant approach, showing that the latter is best suited to the denoising of neural signals. The second part of the chapter shows a sample application with eletroneurographic (ENG) signals recorded from the sciatic nerve of rabbits while the experimenter stimulated the paw of the animal. The wavelet-based denoising is compared with a traditional band-pass filter in two cases: when followed by spike sorting and when followed by traditional rectified bin integration (RBI). The results illustrate the benefits of wavelet denoising over standard band-pass filtering and demonstrate that there is an even more marked improvement when the subsequent step requires signals with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), such as in the case of spike sorting. View full abstract»

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      Instantaneous Cross-Correlation Analysis of Neural Ensembles with High Temporal Resolution

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch10
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      One of the fundamental difficulties in neural assembly studies is the lack of an effective, high-resolution measure of the spatiotemporal structure in spike trains obtained from a single realization. This chapter proposes a systematic approach to estimate the cross-correlation (CC) of spike trains, over time and in only one realization. The solution lies in an alternate defi nition of cross-correlation which suggests that, rather than time averaging as is current practice, ensemble averaging should be used. This observation suggests a natural instantaneous CC (ICC) estimator as required for high temporal resolution and real-time ensemble analysis and decoding. Results are shown in simulated data sets and neural activity of rat motor cortical neurons during a behavioral task. View full abstract»

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      Unsupervised Decomposition Methods for Analysis of Multimodal Neural Data

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch11
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Technical advances in the field of noninvasive neuroimaging allow for innovative therapeutical strategies with application potential in neural rehabilitation. To improve these methods, combinations of multiple imaging modalities have become an important topic of research. This chapter reviews some of the most popular unsupervised statistical learning techniques used in the context of neuroscientific data analysis, and places a special focus on multimodal neural data. It starts with the well-known principal component analysis (PCA). First, the chapter shows how to derive the algorithm and provides illustrative examples of the advantages and disadvantages of standard PCA. The second method presented is canonical correlation analysis (CCA): a multivariate analysis method that reveals maximally correlated features of simultaneously acquired multiple data streams. Finally the chapter presents a straightforward extension of CCA that estimates the correct solution even in the presence of noninstantaneous couplings, that is, temporal delays or convolutions between data sources. View full abstract»

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      Function Replacement (Prostheses and Orthosis)

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.part3
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Brain-Computer Interfaces

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch12
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter introduces the field of brain - computer interfaces (BCIs), also called brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), which has seen impressive achievements over the past few years. It first reviews the different kinds of brain signals that can be recorded as input for a BCI. Then, the chapter discusses a series of principles to build efficient BCIs that are independent of the particular signal of choice. There follows a short overview of BCI attempts to improve the outcome of neurorehabilitation, especially for motor control in stroke patients. The chapter concludes by pinpointing some future research directions in the field of BCI. View full abstract»

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      Movement-Related Cortical Potentials and Their Application in Brain-Computer Interfacing

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch13
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Brain - computer interface (BCI) systems aim at providing a nonmuscular communication and control channel to patients with severe disabilities or at promoting neuroplasticity. Motor imagery is the most common approach to producing electroencephalogram (EEG) changes in EEG-based BCI research. This chapter discusses an alternative approach for distinguishing movement-related parameters, such as speed, for the same imagined task. This approach provides a more intuitive way of control for the user and increases the potential number of commands. The chapter explains a series of studies that analyze the characteristics of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), and explores their potential application to BCI. It describes the characteristics of MRCPs and how these characteristics are modulated by movement parameters, such as speed and torque. It also discusses these results from the viewpoint of applying MRCPs generated during imagined movements of the same joint as control signals for BCIs. View full abstract»

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      Introduction to Upper Limb Prosthetics

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch14
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter overviews the current state of the art of commercial externally powered prostheses and outline current developments in research that will most likely have an important impact on future commercial prosthetic systems. It presents the requirements of advanced prostheses and discusses the rather large gap between commercial systems and systems in academic research. Since the prosthetic hand is a key component in upper limb prosthetics, the chapter mainly focuses on prosthetic hands. In fact, the lack of sufficiently powerful human-machine interfaces-or, more specifically, neural-machine interfaces-is the major limiting factor at the moment in upper limb prosthetics. Given the rather small number of upper limb amputees and the complexity of the advanced solutions discussed in this chapter as well as the excessive costs for clinical evaluation, there is no doubt that prosthetic products based on these technologies could be expensive. View full abstract»

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      Myoelectric Prostheses and Targeted Reinnervation

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch15
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      A number of factors have led to a resurgence of myoelectric control research since the early 2000s. First, low-power electronics have developed to the point where multichannel pattern recognition algorithms can readily be implemented on an embedded system. Second, due to a large number of high-level amputees resulting from recent military conflicts, governments have initiated well-funded programs to improve neural interfaces for prosthetics. Finally, new and innovative neural - machine interfaces, such as targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR), have been developed to provide a rich source of neural information from which control signals can be derived. This chapter provides an overview of existing myoelectric control strategies, highlighting the benefits and limitations of both conventional and pattern recognition techniques, and TMR. The chapter concludes with a summary of exciting emerging technologies that have the potential to further enhance the field of myoelectric control. View full abstract»

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      Controlling Prostheses Using PNS Invasive Interfaces for Amputees

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch16
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Several attempts have been made to enhance the control of highly sensorized prostheses. One of the main goals is to create a bidirectional link between the prosthesis and the nervous system. Several approaches based on noninvasive and invasive interfaces have been developed and tested. Among these, interfaces with the peripheral nervous system (PNS), especially longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs), seem to be a promising solution. This chapter presents the potential and the limits of these interfaces for the control of prosthetic devices. It reviews the state of the art of artificial hand control based on the use of invasive interfaces with the PNS. Decoding algorithms represent a critical step for electroneurographic (ENG)-based hand prosthesis control. Algorithms have been mainly developed for the closed-loop control of functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems. Several techniques have been developed to provide noninvasive tactile or proprioceptive information to the amputees. View full abstract»

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      Exoskeletal Robotics for Functional Substitution

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch17
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter advocates for considering functional substitution exoskeletal robots (ERs) for rehabilitation during chronic phases of motor disorders. It reviews the technologies that were applied in the past to control the flow of mechanical power and the flow of information between human and robot. The chapter identifies technological bottlenecks in the development of functional substitution ERs. It proposes a way to circumvent this technological limitation might be based on hybrid functional substitution technologies comprising an ER and a motor neuroprosthesis (MNP). In this way, latent motor capabilities of patients can be preserved or even augmented by orchestrating the action of MNPs and ERs in a scheme that seeks to exploit the advantages of each technology. Both ERs and MNPs are technologies that seek to restore or substitute motor function. MNPs constitute an approach to restoring function using artificial control of human muscles or muscle nerves with functional electrical stimulation (FES). View full abstract»

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      Function Restoration

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.part4
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Methods for Movement Restoration

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch18
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Restoration of movement in humans with motor disability is an important element of rehabilitation that allows reintegration into healthy life. The basis of movement restoration is the external assistance that provides the compromised function for the person with the disability. This chapter presents methods of assistance and illustrates them with some systems that are currently being accepted as favorable for rehabilitation: balance and body weight robot assistants for training of walking; reaching assistants for training shoulder and elbow functions; assistive systems based on electrical stimulation. It also briefly presents the possible use of magnetic or direct electrical stimulation of brain structures and spinal cord to enhance motor function and have therapeutic effect. View full abstract»

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      Advanced User Interfaces for Upper Limb Functional Electrical Stimulation

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch19
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Spinal cord injury (SCI) paralyzes approximately 12,000 people each year in the United States. Individuals with an injury at and above the sixth cervical vertebra (C6) lose function in the upper and lower limbs. To provide greater independence to this population, the restoration of reaching and grasping movements is critically important. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is currently the only clinical approach for reanimating paralyzed muscles. The chapter starts by reviewing existing technologies for obtaining a control signal that is usable for a FES neuroprosthesis. This is followed by a discussion of the promise that recent advances in brain??-??machine interfaces (BMIs) hold for more natural user interfaces. Differences in the information content of potential signal sources suggest that enhanced control signals may be generated through an efficient combination of the available sources from each individual. Finally, the chapter discusses the relation between off-line decoder accuracy and online user performance. View full abstract»

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      Customized Modeling and Simulations for the Control of FES-Assisted Walking of Individuals with Hemiplegia

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch20
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter presents the modeling and simulation approach for the control of surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) for assisting walking in individuals with hemiplegia. The model is carefully reduced into a form that is tractable and therefore convenient for practical application, while still capturing the most important features of the real plant. The parameters describing the model are experimentally identifiable, and the model can be customized to represent the affected limb of a specific patient. The authors have also developed a practical simulation method based on optimal control that takes a desired walking pattern as input and outputs the stimulation profiles that are necessary to generate the pattern. The chapter provides several illustrative examples demonstrating the use of the OptiWalk software tool. View full abstract»

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      ActiGait??: A Partly Implantable Drop-Foot Stimulator System

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch21
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      ActiGait is a four-channel partly implantable neuroprosthesis to control ankle dorsiflexion during the swing phase of gait. It was the goal of the developers to make a device that was easily handled by users with various levels of disabilities. To ensure optimal application of the ActiGait during market introduction, additional monitoring tools were applied and developed such as preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraoperative fluoroscopy, and surface recordings of artifacts generated by the electrical stimulation of the nerve. By employing close monitoring during the establishment of new ActiGait clinical centers, ActiGait has been shown to be well accepted by users in several European countries. Experiences with the ActiGait have shown that thorough and targeted knowledge transfer to new clinical ActiGait centers, application of suitable monitoring tools, and close monitoring are all decisive in bringing a medical device such as an implantable drop-foot stimulator system successfully on the market. View full abstract»

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      Selectivity of Peripheral Neural Interfaces

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch22
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The peripheral nerve interface provides a connection between the peripheral nerve cells in our bodies and neuroprosthetic devices. It is important to consider and assess how well different types of neural interfaces selectively access specific nerve fibers. This chapter first provides a background for understanding the importance of selectivity by introducing two examples of neural prosthesis applications, and reviews the state of the art of methods for quantitatively assessing selectivity. Second, it defines four success criteria for evaluating selectivity, and provides specific results from an experimental study for comparing the selectivity performance of two intraneural peripheral electrodes (thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (tfLIFE) and the transverse, intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME) interfaces) placed in the median nerve in the forelimb of pigs. It is shown that the design and placement of the electrode must be carefully considered before choosing a neural interface for a specific neural prosthesis application. View full abstract»

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      Rehabilitation through Neuromodulation

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.part5
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      Brain-Computer Interface Applied to Motor Recovery after Brain Injury

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch23
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter deals with the early investigations of brain - computer interface (BCI) systems applied to the goal of motor recovery after neural injury, as well as some of the difficulties encountered. It explains the application of noninvasive BCIs to physical rehabilitation. Noninvasive BCIs include those that use electroencephalographical (EEG) recordings from the surface of the scalp, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings, and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings. The chapter also discusses neuroscience evidence of brain plasticity and theoretical strategies for BCIs in motor learning. It concludes with feasibility studies of noninvasive BCI. These studies address the following issues: identification of motor task practice that can produce a brain signal that can be used in rehabilitation, identification of brain signal features that can be used in rehabilitation, and ease and accuracy of the use of BCI training. View full abstract»

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      Functional Electrical Therapy of Upper Extremities

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch24
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter describes functional electrical therapy (FET) systems that relate to the methods used in recovery of upper limb functioning in humans with a sensory -  motor lesion in the central nervous system (CNS) that impacts reaching and grasping. FET functionally assists the user while the sensory feedback associated with the performance of the activities contributes to the relearning process of the brain. This functional sensory feedback should be maximized both in intensity and duration and should not be limited to short clinical training sessions. During the therapy period, a FET system can be provided to each stroke patient for use during his or her daily activities, thus resulting in intensive training. FET allows patients to train performing functional movements and learn new strategies of optimal use of preserved sensory - motor mechanism. This training could be understood as the process of recalibration of the natural control system. View full abstract»

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      Gait Rehabilitation Using Nociceptive Withdrawal Reflex-Based Functional Electrical Therapy in Stroke Patients

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch25
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter describes the modulation of the reflex size depending on the phase of the gait cycle and the stimulation site on the foot. Flexion of the hip and knee was observed irrespective of stimulation site while the largest reflexes were detected when stimulation was delivered at heel-off. Applying repetitive stimulation at 15 Hz (four bursts) increased the mechanical response substantially. This information is needed in order to utilize the reflex response optimally for gait support. In 15 subacute stroke patients, the swing phase was supported by the reflex evoked by four repetitive stimuli applied in the arch of the foot at heel-off during daily gait therapy. When tested one month after therapy, a significantly higher preferred gait velocity (average of 27%) was found compared with a control group receiving the same gait therapy but without reflex support. View full abstract»

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      Robot-Assisted Neurorehabilitation

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch26
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter addresses the use of robots to facilitate the recovery of neuromotor functions. Early approaches to robot-based therapy were mostly empirical and limited by the available hardware, designed for industrial applications. More recent applications build on the current understanding of the physiology of the reorganization of the nervous system following a lesion. The chapter focuses on rehabilitation of the upper limb, but similar principles are applicable to the lower limb. It addresses the neuromotor recovery of chronic stroke survivors and examines two case studies in more detail. Then, the chapter discusses the available evidence on the efficacy of robot therapy. Finally, it suggests that robots may be potentially useful in the context of other neurological diseases, for example, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy. View full abstract»

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      Paired Associative Stimulation

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch27
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Paired associative stimulation (PAS) consists of the repetitive pairing of a peripheral electrical and a central magnetic stimulus at low frequency. This chapter focuses on the possible use of PAS in altering the control of lower limb muscles and in particular the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is enhanced when PAS is delivered in synchrony with rhythmic voluntary contraction. However, clinical application of such an intervention focuses on populations with motor dysfunction. The chapter presents a study that investigates whether an artificially induced muscular contraction can result in a similar effect as a voluntary contraction. It provides reports on the possible functional implications following the application of PAS. Results reveal that PAS delivered to the resting TA results in significant facilitation of respective motor cortical projections without a concomitant change in basic functional measures. View full abstract»

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      Operant Conditioning of Spinal Reflexes for Motor Rehabilitation after CNS Damage

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.ch28
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Spinal reflex behaviors can be changed through operant conditioning, in which modification of a behavior is brought about by the consequence of that behavior. Spinal reflex conditioning can be used to change a spinal reflex pathway so as to ameliorate movement disabilities due to central nervous system (CNS) damage. This chapter demonstrates that operant conditioning can increase or decrease the soleus H-reflex in neurologically intact people, and investigates whether down-conditioning can reduce abnormal soleus H-reflex excitability in people with incomplete SCI and can thereby alleviate spastic gait. Finally, operant conditioning protocols that focus on modifying EEG activity over sensorimotor cortex might conceivably provide an additional approach to improving cortical control of motor function. View full abstract»

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      Index

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.index
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»

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      IEEE Press Series in Biomedical Engineering

      Farina, D. ; Jensen, W. ; Akay, M.
      Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation

      DOI: 10.1002/9781118628522.oth
      Copyright Year: 2013

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      No abstract. View full abstract»




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