Extruded Cables for High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission:Advances in Research and Development

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2013
Author(s): Giovanni Mazzanti; Massimo Marzinotto
Book Type: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Power, Energy, & Industry Applications
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      Front Matter

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      The prelims comprise:
      Half-Title Page
      Series Page
      Title Page
      Copyright Page
      Contents
      Foreword
      Acknowledgments
      List of Symbols and Acronyms
      Introduction View full abstract»

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      Introduction

      Copyright Year: 2013

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      This introductory chapter of Extruded Cables for High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission: Advances in Research and Development presents an overview of the organization of the other chapters in the book. High-voltage direct-current (HVDC) power transmission is becoming more and more competitive compared to high-voltage alternate-current (HVAC) power transmission, especially for bulk power transmission over long distances. With the dawn of the new millennium, a new era has started for HVDC extruded cable technology, a technology dormant since the 1970s. This is the result of enduring research and development (R&D) efforts in insulation materials and systems carried out by scientists and engineers all over the world, so as to put HVDC extruded cable systems in the limelight. An encouraging future is round the corner: higher voltage levels, larger power transfer, and available polarity reversal.

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      Fundamentals of HVDC Cable Transmission

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      This chapter reviews the fundamentals of HVDC cable transmission. It presents a description of the historical evolution of HVDC power transmission. The chapter focuses on the basic principles for an economic comparison between HVDC transmission systems and traditional HVAC transmission systems. It analyses the configurations and operating modes of HVDC transmission systems. The chapter also analyses the converters commonly used in HVDC transmission systems, that is, the line-commutated current source converters (CSCs) and the self commutated voltage source converters (VSCs), with the ultimate goal of singling out the effect of converter typology on HVDC cable insulation. It overviews the main types of HVDC cables, by emphasizing the differences between underground and undersea transmission cables on one hand, and between oil-paper insulated and extruded cables on the other hand.

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      Main Principles of HVDC Extruded Cable Design

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      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter illustrates, in detail, the basics of HVDC extruded cable design. It presents a detailed analysis of the differences between HVAC and HVDC cables. The chapter also presents a detailed analysis of the DC electric field distribution in the typical transient conditions encountered during the service of an HVDC cable. It discusses the influence of the laying environment temperature on the steady field of an HVDC extruded cable and the effects of impulses superimposed to the DC voltage, which gives rise to a novel statistical approach to the selection of impulse voltage test levels for HVDC extruded cables. The chapter presents an overview of the problems involved by the modification of the stress distribution by trapped space charge effects. It reviews the polyethylene-based dielectrics for designing and manufacturing HVDC extruded cables, and morphology of polyethylene from the viewpoint of its influence on the performances of HVDC cable insulation.

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      Space Charge in HVDC Extruded Insulation: Storage, Effects, and Measurement Methods

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      This chapter discusses space-charge storage in HVDC extruded insulation, the relevant manifold effects, and the techniques developed by researchers in order to measure the amount and distribution of space charge stored in the insulation, and the electric field profile associated with such distribution. It reviews the theoretical background of charge injection and transport in insulating polymers. The chapter illustrates the processes that result in space-charge accumulation namely charge generation¿¿-¿¿via electronic charge injection, field-assisted thermal ionization of impurities, spatially inhomogeneous electric polarization, and steady DC current coupled with a spatially varying ratio ofpermittivity to conductivity. It also reviews the space-charge measurement methods for HVDC extruded insulation. The chapter focuses on the up-to-date developments of the best-suited techniques for measuring space charges in extruded insulation for HVDC cables. It provides a comparison between the best space-charge measurement methods for power cables: pulsed electro acoustic (PEA) versus thermal step method (TSM).

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      Improved Design of HVDC Extruded Cable Systems

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      This chapter discusses the improvements in the design of extruded HVDC cable systems brought about by the most recent research and development activities relevant to cable insulation and cable system components. It talks about the use of AC LDPE, XLPE or HDPE cables for HVDC applications, and the stress inversion-free or -limited DC cable. The chapter focuses on most common and up-to-date approach in improving extruded polymeric insulation for HVDC cable systems, that is, the suppression of space charge in the insulation, achieved by modifying the characteristics of the electrode-insulation interfaces or the bulk insulation characteristics via additives or fillers. It illustrates the improved design of practical HVDC extruded cables and its accessories. A conclusive synthesis of the design and testing of overall HVDC extruded cable systems is presented.

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      Life Modeling of HVDC Extruded Cable Insulation

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      This chapter discusses HVDC extruded cable insulation life modeling, and presents a review of the basics of life modeling and reliability estimates of power cables, which consists of the traditional approach to insulation life modeling and of the probabilistic framework of HVDC extruded insulation. It describes the theory and applications of the life models conceived for extruded HVDC cables, which are either based on space-charge effects (i.e., the field-limited space-charge model and the space-charge DMM model) or on the interaction between space charges and partial discharges (i.e., the life model based on damage growth from microvoids). This chapter gives some hints about the long-debated question of whether space charge is a cause or an effect of aging, based on life models that do not regard space charge as a direct cause of aging.

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      Main Realizations of HVDC Extruded Cable Systems in the World

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      This chapter discusses, in detail, the practical realizations of HVDC extruded cable systems by presenting the main HVDC extruded systems that are installed and are currently in service worldwide. It presents a detailed illustration of each one of the projects namely: Gotland Link, Murraylink, Cross Sound Cable (CSC), Troll A Platform, Estlink, BorWin 1, Trans Bay Project and Hokkaido-Honshu Intertie. The chapter also discusses the HVDC extruded cable systems in operation, and describes some of the practical problems tackled at the design, manufacturing, and installation stages.

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      Index

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      IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

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