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Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2011
Author(s): William F. Egan
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Communication, Networking & Broadcasting ;  Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems ;  Computing & Processing ;  Signal Processing & Analysis
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Abstract

The latest frequency synthesis techniques, including sigma-delta, Diophantine, and all-digitalSigma-delta is a frequency synthesis technique that has risen in popularity over the past decade due to its intensely digital nature and its ability to promote miniaturization. A continuation of the popular Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock, Second Edition, this timely resource provides a broad introduction to sigma-delta by pairing practical simulation results with cutting-edge research. Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock discusses both sigma-delta and fractional-n—the still-in-use forerunner to sigma-delta—employing Simulink® models and detailed simulations of results to promote a deeper understanding.After a brief introduction, the book shows how spurs are produced at the synthesizer output by the basic process and different methods for overcoming them. It investigates how various defects in sigma-delta synthesis contribute to spurs or noise in the synthesized signal. Synthesizer configurations are analyzed, and it is revealed how to trade off the various noise sources by choosing loop parameters. Other sigma-delta synthesis architectures are then reviewed.The Simulink simulation models that provided data for the preceding discussions are described, providing guidance in making use of such models for further exploration. Next, another method for achieving wide loop bandwidth simultaneously with fine resolution—the Diophantine Frequency Synthesizer—is introduced. Operation at extreme bandwidths is also covered, further describing the analysis of synthesizers that push their bandwidths close to the sampling-frequency limit. Lastly, the book reviews a newly important technology that is poised to become widely used in high-production consumer ele ctronics—all-digital frequency synthesis.Detailed appendices provide in-depth discussion on various stages of development, and many related resources are available for download, including Simulink models, MATLAB® scripts, spreadsheets, and executable programs. All these features make this authoritative reference ideal for electrical engineers who want to achieve an understanding of sigma-delta frequency synthesis and an awareness of the latest developments in the field.

  •   Click to expandTable of Contents

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      Frontmatter

      Page(s): i - xxii
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Half Title
      Title
      Copyright
      Dedication
      Contents
      Preface
      Symbols List and Glossary View full abstract»

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      Introduction

      Page(s): 1 - 7
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Phase-Locked Synthesizer
      Fractional-N Frequency Synthesis
      Representing a Change in Divide Number
      Units
      Representing Phase Noise
      Phase Noise at the Synthesizer Output
      Observing the Output Spectrum View full abstract»

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      Fractional-N and Basic Synthesizers

      Page(s): 09 - 38
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      First-Order Fractional-N
      Second-Order Fractional-N
      Higher Order Fractional-N
      Spectrums with Constant Sampling Rate
      Summary of Spectrums
      Summary View full abstract»

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      Other Spurious Reduction Techniques

      Page(s): 39 - 53
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      LSB Dither
      Maximum Sequence Length
      Shortened Accumulators and Lower Primes
      Long Sequence
      Summary View full abstract»

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      Defects in Synthesizers

      Page(s): 55 - 80
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Noise Models
      Levels of Other Noise in Synthesizers
      Noise Sources, Equivalent Input Noise
      Discrete Sidebands
      Summary View full abstract»

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      Other Architectures

      Page(s): 81 - 102
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Stability
      Feedback
      Feedforward
      Quantizer Offset
      MASH-n1n2n3
      Cancellation of Quantization Noise in the General Modulator
      Fractional Swallows
      Hardware Reduction View full abstract»

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      Simulation

      Page(s): 103 - 122
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      SandH.mdl
      SandHreverse.mdl
      CPandI.mdl
      Dither.mdl
      HandK.mdl
      SimplePD.mdl
      CPandIplus.mdl
      CPandITrunc.mdl
      Adapting a Model
      EFeedback.mdl
      FeedForward.mdl
      MASH modulator scripts
      SynStep.mdl
      Other Methods View full abstract»

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      Diophantine Synthesizer

      Page(s): 123 - 133
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Two-Loop Synthesizer
      Multi Loop Synthesizers
      MATLAB Scripts
      Signal Mixing
      Reference-Frequency Coupling
      Center Frequencies View full abstract»

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      Operation at Extreme Bandwidths

      Page(s): 135 - 143
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Determining the Effects of Sampling
      A Particular Case
      When are Sampling Effects Important?
      Computer Program
      Sampling Effects in Synthesizers View full abstract»

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      All-Digital Frequency Synthesizers

      Page(s): 145 - 161
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      The Flying Adder Synthesizer
      ADPLL Synthesizer View full abstract»

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      Appendix A: All Digital

      Page(s): 163 - 170
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Flying Adder Circuits
      ADPLL Synthesizer View full abstract»

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      Appendix C: Fractional Cancellation

      Page(s): 171 - 176
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Modulator Details
      First Accumulator
      Second Accumulator
      Additional Accumulators
      Accumulator without Input Register View full abstract»

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      Appendix E: Excess PPSD

      Page(s): 177 - 181
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Development of Eq. (2.4)
      Approximating kp as constant
      Approximation in Eq. (E.8) View full abstract»

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      Appendix F: References to

      Page(s): 183
      Copyright Year: 2011

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      Appendix G: Using Gsmpl

      Page(s): 185 - 194
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Open-Loop Transfer Function
      Closed-Loop Responses
      Saving Results
      Version Number
      Example Session
      Generating Analysis Plots
      Verification of Gardner's Stability Limits
      The Nyquist Plot View full abstract»

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      Appendix H: Sample-and-Hold Circuit

      Page(s): 195 - 206
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Transient Performance
      Filter Capacitor Before Sampler View full abstract»

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      Appendix L: Loop Response

      Page(s): 207 - 213
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Primary Loop
      Damped Loop View full abstract»

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      Appendix M: Mash PPSD

      Page(s): 215 - 223
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      MASH Modulator: First Stage
      MASH Modulator: Second Order
      MASH Modulator: Higher Order
      Variances
      Some Parameters of S
      View full abstract»

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      Appendix N: Sampled Noise

      Page(s): 225 - 228
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Case 1: Wn f ref
      Case 2: 1/T Wn f ref
      Case 3: Wn 1/T f ref
      Variance of Sampled Noise (1/T f ref)
      Convolution of PSDs
      Representing Squared PSDs View full abstract»

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      Appendix O: Oscillator Spectrums

      Page(s): 229 - 230
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      Appendix P: Phase Detectors

      Page(s): 231 - 232
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      Appendix Q: Quantization PPSD

      Page(s): 233 - 239
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Development of Eq. (Q.1)
      Superposition
      New Synthesized Frequency
      Loop Response
      Verification of the Effect of Sampling on the Loop View full abstract»

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      Appendix R: Reference Frequency Spurs

      Page(s): 241 - 247
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Leakage Current
      Pulse Offset
      Modulation
      Effect of Modulation on Pulse Offset Spurs
      Effect of Modulation on Leakage Spurs
      Effects of Resampling View full abstract»

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      Appendix S: Spectrum Analysis

      Page(s): 249 - 258
      Copyright Year: 2011

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Spectrums
      The Spectrum Analyzer
      The Window Function
      Density and Discrete Spurs
      Control Parameters
      Frequency Conversion in an Analyzer
      Displaying L, FPSD, and PPSD
      Spectral Overlaps
      Anomalous Spurs View full abstract»

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      Appendix T: Toolboxes

      Page(s): 259 - 260
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      Appendix U: Noise Produced by Charge Pump Current Unbalance (Mismatch)

      Page(s): 261 - 264
      Copyright Year: 2011

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      Appendix W: Getting Files from the Wiley Internet Site

      Page(s): 265
      Copyright Year: 2011

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      Appendix X: Some Tables

      Page(s): 267 - 268
      Copyright Year: 2011

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      This appendix contains sections titled:
      Accumulator Shortening
      Sequence Lengths View full abstract»

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      End Notes

      Page(s): 269 - 275
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      References

      Page(s): 277 - 282
      Copyright Year: 2011

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      Index

      Page(s): 283 - 290
      Copyright Year: 2011

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