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Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

Cover Image Copyright Year: 2001
Author(s): Chan, H.
Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press
Content Type : Books & eBooks
Topics: Components, Circuits, Devices & Systems
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Abstract

As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
Theoretical basis for AST
General AST best practices
AST design and manufacturing processes
AST equipment and techniques
AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs.

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      Frontmatter

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.fmatter
      Page(s): ii - xxii
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The prelims comprise:
      Half Title
      IEEE Press Board Page
      Title
      Copyright
      Dedicated
      Contents
      Foreword
      Preface
      Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Overview

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.part1
      Page(s): 1
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

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      Introduction

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch1
      Page(s): 2 - 9
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Synopsis of Reliability Trends and Aim of Book
      Background of Military and Industrial Stress Testing Practices
      Overview of the AST Handbook
      References View full abstract»

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      Principles of Stress Testing

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch2
      Page(s): 10 - 29
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Rationale for Stress Testing
      Stress Testing Technical and Implementation Issues
      Economic Issues
      References View full abstract»

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      Process and Guidelines

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.part2
      Page(s): 31
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

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      Stress Testing Program: Generic Processes

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch3
      Page(s): 32 - 43
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Overview of the Stress Testing Strategy
      Design Stress Testing (D-AST)
      Manufacturing Qualification Stress Testing (MQ-AST)
      Periodic Qualification Stress Testing (PQ-AST)
      Production Sampling Stress Testing (PS-AST)
      Full-Production Stress Testing (FP-AST) View full abstract»

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      Stress Testing Program Subprocesses

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch4
      Page(s): 44 - 65
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Plan Program Subprocess (A)
      Baseline Product Subprocess (B)
      Take Corrective Action Subprocess (C)
      Develop Manufacturing Stress Testing Regimen Subprocess (D)
      Demonstrate Safety of the Stress Testing Regimen Subprocess (E)
      Perform Manufacturing Stress Testing Subprocess (F)
      Optimize the Manufacturing Stress Testing Regimen Subprocess (G) View full abstract»

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      Guidelines for Design and Manufacturing Stress Testing

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch5
      Page(s): 66 - 90
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      AST Test Strategy
      AST Plan
      Sample Size Selection for Design AST
      Typical Stress Stimuli and Associated Product Flaws
      Recommended Stress Levels
      Baseline Product Test Procedures
      Failure Mode Analysis and Root Cause Analysis
      Corrective Action and Product Ruggedization
      References View full abstract»

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      Theory

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.part3
      Page(s): 91
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

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      Economics and Optimization

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch6
      Page(s): 92 - 108
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Guidelines for Optimizing Manufacturing Stress Testing
      Formulation
      Reliability Objective
      Types of Failures Revisited
      Distribution of Environmental Stresses
      Effect of Stress Testing
      Reliability Requirements
      Requirement on Service-Life Fraction Failed
      Requirement on Product Strength Distribution
      Examples
      Economic Issues and Optimization
      Net Benefit
      Optimization
      Product Considerations
      Economic Summary
      References View full abstract»

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      Reliability GrowthReprinted with editorial changes from Achieving Phenomenal Reliability Growth, by Clifton J. Seusy with permission from Proceedings of the ASM Conference on Reliability, pp. 7988, 1987, ASM InternationalMaterials Park, Ohio.

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch7
      Page(s): 109 - 126
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter is one of several in this book that was reprinted with permission of the author. Again recognizing that there are a myriad of viable AST techniques outside of the scope of the AT&T and Lucent reliability procedures, in this portion of the book we provide a complementary approach to the economics and optimization methods delineated in Chapter 6. Though written quite a while ago (1987), Seusy's work is still highly applicable in today's drive to achieve high reliability in a globally competitive marketplace. He initially applies a theoretical treatment to the fundamental question that any reliability engineer must answer: How many units do I need to test given constraints of money, time, and effort to attain one's reliability goals? After presenting a methodology to answer this question, he proceeds to practical discussions of prototype acquisition, stressing, failure mode analysis and tracking, and corrective action. The tools presented here were derived from statistical theory and from experience. Numerous case studies are presented to illustrate the successful application of these principles.
      What Is Reliability Growth?
      How Many Units Must Be Tested?
      Failure Mode Distribution
      How Are These Units Acquired?
      The Success of Failures Attained by Stress Testing
      Results
      Conclusions
      Acknowledgments
      References View full abstract»

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      Overview of the Failure Analysis Process for Electrical Components

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch8
      Page(s): 127 - 133
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter presents a person who is not a failure analysis expert with an overview of the failure analysis process. The focus is on an example of electrical components, although the process is applicable to a wide variety of problems. A list of tools necessary for a basic failure analysis lab is presented. A discussion of what you, as a failure analysis customer, can do to optimize the FMA process. Finally, some of the future challenges facing the failure analysis discipline are presented.
      Definition of Failure Analysis
      The Benefits of Performing Failure Analysis
      Overview of the Failure Analysis Process for Electrical Components
      Tools for Component Failure Analysis
      Personnel for Component Failure Analysis
      Challenges Facing Failure Analysts in the Future
      What the Customer Can Do to Optimize the Failure Analysis Process
      References View full abstract»

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      Equipment and Techniques

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.part4
      Page(s): 135
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Accelerated Stress Testing Equipment and Techniques

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch9
      Page(s): 136 - 154
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Introduction
      Thermal Equipment
      Vibration Equipment
      Combined Thermal and Vibration Equipment
      Ancillary Mechanical Equipment for Stress Testing
      Environmental Analysis Equipment Used for Stress Testing
      Electrical Test Equipment and Software Used for Stress Testing
      Other Stress Options View full abstract»

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      Vibration and Shock Inputs Indentify Some Failure ModesExtracted from material presented by the Equipment Reliability Institute, http://www.equipmentreliability.com

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch10
      Page(s): 155 - 181
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Why Important?
      Vibration Measurements
      Controllable Sources of Vibration and Mechanical Shock
      Characteristics of Shock, Sine, and Random Vibration
      Multi-Axis Excitation
      Repetitive Shock Machines for Multi-Axis Stress Testing
      Using Random Vibration and Repetitive Shock for Stress Testing View full abstract»

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      Relative Effectiveness of Thermal Cycling versus BurnIn

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch11
      Page(s): 182 - 188
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      An accelerated stress testing (AST) program was conducted at AT&T on various types of communications equipment. One issue of concern in developing an appropriate AST regimen is the effectiveness of thermal cycling and burn-in in revealing potential reliability problems. This of course depends on the type and distribution of failure modes that happen to be present in a particular product. However, similar electronic equipment might have similar failure modes in general. Two experiments have been conducted to gauge the relative effectiveness of thermal cycling and burn-in for a typical communications system that used optical transmission. The first AST regimen was a series of thermal cycles (A) followed by an extended period of burn-in (B). This order was reversed in the second AST regimen, which consists of burn-in (B) followed by thermal cycling (A). By comparing the failure distributions in time for the AB and BA experiments, one can discern the relative effectiveness of the thermal cycling and burn-in for stimulating failures. The results clearly show that thermal cycling reveals important failure modes that are not effectively precipitated by burn-in alone. Some of these failures occur as intermittent failures during the temperature transients. Moreover, thermal cycling does tend to reveal many of the same failure modes precipitated by burn-in because the thermocyclic test regimen inherently involves successive time intervals at elevated temperature. On the other hand, the data suggest that time-at-temperature (burn-in) failures are also involved. Therefore, a balanced test regimen of thermal cycling and burn-in seems advisable.
      Introduction
      Results for Thermal Cycling Alone
      Intermittents and First Events
      Thermal Cycling Versus Burn-In
      Failure Mechanisms
      Conclusion
      Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Accelerated Qualification of Electronic Assemblies Under Combined Temperature Cycling and Vibration Environments: Is Miner's Hypothesis Valid?

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch12
      Page(s): 189 - 202
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      The superposition of thermal cycling and vibration loading has been experimentally observed to slow down fatigue damage accumulation rates in solder joints as compared to damage accumulation due to vibration load alone. The reverse may occur for some other load combinations. The popular Palmgren-Miner's hypothesis, which linearly superposes the separate damage caused by each load, is not suitable for explaining the observed trend because interactions between the thermal and vibration loads are ignored in linear damage superposition schemes. Obtaining a meaningful acceleration transform (acceleration transform correlates the accelerated life test results to field life expectations) therefore hinges on the ability to capture the interactive effects between applied loads in the failure models. A modeling approach based on physics of failure (PoF) is presented that adequately quantifies the complex interactions between temperature and vibration loads using an incremental damage superposition approach (IDSA). The first modeling approach (macroscale IDSA) is formulated at the macroscale without any attention to microstructural phenomena, and it phenomenologically captures the dominant failure drivers. The second modeling approach (microscale IDSA) is formulated at the microscale and incorporates the underlying physical mechanisms and microstructural parameters that drive the failure process. Both macroscale and microscale damage models are applied to predict the durability of a selected surface mount interconnect architecture (84-pin plastic-leaded chip carrier). The prediction trends are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, confirming that the dominant damage contributors have been successfully captured in the IDSA model. This study provides a systematic way of quantifying complex interactions between thermal cycling and vibration loads on durabilit y of electronic assemblies. Furthermore, by incorporating the influences of microstructure on damage predictions, this study has also provided a new modeling approach to explicitly account for different microstructural states when extrapolating accelerated test results to field life conditions.
      Introduction
      Combined Temperature and Vibration Accelerated Life Tests
      The Macroscopic Incremental Damage Superposition Approach Macro-IDSA)
      The Micromechanistic Incremental Damage Superposition Approach (Micro-IDSA)
      Conclusions
      Acknowledgments
      References View full abstract»

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      Liquid Environmental Stress Testing (LEST)

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch13
      Page(s): 203 - 215
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Advantages of Liquid Environmental Stress Testing
      Liquid Environmental Stress Testing Facility
      Thermal Considerations in Liquid Environmental Stress Testing
      Conclusions
      References View full abstract»

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      Safety Qualification of Stress Testing

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch14
      Page(s): 216 - 225
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Stress Testing Safety Qualification Program
      Safety Qualification Programs for Other Types of Stresses
      References View full abstract»

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      Best Practices Case Studies in Computer, Communications, and other Industries

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.part5
      Page(s): 227
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

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      Design AST with Vendor ElectronicsReprinted from Reliability Growth Through Application of Accelerated Reliability Techniques and Continual Improvement Processes, Proceedings of the IES Annual Technical Meeting, pp. 347354, with permission from the author and the Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST) 1991.

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch16
      Page(s): 240 - 252
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Introduction
      The Test-Analyze-Correct-Verify Process
      Accelerated Reliability Techniques (ART)
      Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Power Supply Example
      Conclusions
      Acknowledgments
      References View full abstract»

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      Design and Production AST with Power SuppliesReprinted with editing from Use of Environmental Stress Screening in Development and Manufacturing of Switching Power Supplies, Proceedings of the IES ESSEH Meeting, pp. 6569, with permission from the author and the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES) 1990.

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch17
      Page(s): 253 - 262
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Background
      STRIFE in New Product Development (Design AST)
      ESS in Manufacturing (Production AST)
      Final Conclusions
      Acknowledgments View full abstract»

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      Design and Production AST with ComputersReprinted from Reliability Enhancement of a New Computer by ESS Part 2: Field Results, Proceedings of the IES Annual Technical Meeting, pp. 127132, with permission from the author and the Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST) 1996.

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch18
      Page(s): 263 - 268
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Background
      The ESS Program
      Conclusions
      Acknowledgments
      Definitions and Acronyms
      Reference View full abstract»

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      Qualification and Production Sampling AST with Printed Circuit BoardsReprinted from Hightly Accelerated Stressing of Products with Very Low Failure Rates, Proceedings of the IES Annual Technical Meeting, pp. 443450, with permission from the author and the Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES) 1992.

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch19
      Page(s): 269 - 281
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Introduction
      Proposed Test and Theory
      Ongoing Monitoring of the Production Process
      Screen Development
      Equipment
      Results of the Initial Testing
      Conclusions
      Acknowledgments
      Glossary
      References View full abstract»

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      Manufacturing AST with Telecommunication ProductsReprinted from Quality Improvement Using Environmental Stress Testing, in the AT&T Technical Journal, pp. 1023, with permission from the authors and the AT&T Technical Journal 1992.

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch20
      Page(s): 282 - 299
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      AT&T and other leading manufacturers have developed techniques that use environmental stress testing to enhance the quality and reliability of electronics assemblies. These techniques consist primarily of applying thermal, vibration, and voltage stresses to components or assemblies during design and manufacturing. Environmental stress testing is a tool that is used to accelerate the detection of product weaknesses. When coupled with corrective-action programs, this tool also enhances product quality and reliability. This chapter discusses applications of environmental stress testing in the electronics industry. It also reviews the results of environmental stress testing at AT&T's Little Rock Operations Center in Arkansas as applied primarily to the manufacture of circuit-card assemblies.
      Introduction
      EST During Product Design (Design AST)
      Production EST (AST)
      Production EST (AST) Studies at AT&T
      Results of the Thermal Cycling Studies
      Acknowledgments
      References View full abstract»

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      Production AST with Computer DisksReprinted from A Method of Reliability Improvement Using Accelerated Testing Methodologies, in the Proceedings of the NEPCON West Conference, pp. 431439, with permission from the author and Reed Exhibition Companies 1996.

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch21
      Page(s): 300 - 307
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      Reliability growth is a major goal of many new product introductions. There are many ways of achieving this growth in a new product. One of the new methods, production AST or highly accelerated stress screening (HASS)[1], is discussed in this chapter. Utilizing Highly Accelerated Stress Screening along with highly focused root cause analysis win help reliability grow rapidly, which is highly desirable in today's fast-moving time-to-market-driven companies. An example of how this process works based on the experience gained in the introduction of a new power system is discussed. HASS is part of an overall iterative process of forcing failures, analysis, correction, and retesting. HASS itself needs to be continually monitored for its effectiveness, and corrections must be made for missed defects. Case studies, with reliability data, are presented to demonstrate how HASS can be a major part of a reliability growth process.
      Introduction
      Growing Reliability
      Problem
      Case Study
      Product Flow
      Profile Utilized
      A Look at the Failure Mechanisms
      The Bottom Line
      Conclusion
      References View full abstract»

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      Benchmarking

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.ch22
      Page(s): 308 - 337
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      This chapter contains sections titled:
      Introduction to Benchmarking
      The AST Benchmarking Process
      Benchmarking Partnerships - Otis Elevator Company and United Technologies/3Com Corporation (U.S. Robotics)
      Benchmarking AST Survey Data
      Summary
      Acknowledgments
      References
      Appendix A Environmental Stress Screening Questionnaire - 1997
      Appendix B Environmental Stress Screening Questionnaire - ;1996 & 1997 Results View full abstract»

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      Glossary of Stress Testing Terminology

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.gloss
      Page(s): 338 - 339
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Bibliography

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.biblio
      Page(s): 340 - 363
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Index

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.index
      Page(s): 365 - 368
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      Epilogue

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.epil
      Page(s): 369
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»

    • Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

      About the Editors

      Chan, H.
      Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook:Guide for Achieving Quality Products

      DOI: 10.1109/9780470544051.bioed
      Page(s): 371 - 372
      Copyright Year: 2001

      Wiley-IEEE Press eBook Chapters

      As we move closer to a genuinely global economy, the pressure to develop highly reliable products on ever-tighter schedules will increase. Part of a designer's "toolbox" for achieving product reliability in a compressed time frame should be a set of best practices for utilizing accelerated stress testing (AST). The Accelerated Stress Testing Handbook delineates a core set of AST practices as part of an overall methodology for enhancing hardware product reliability. The techniques presented will teach readers to identify design deficiencies and problems with component quality or manufacturing processes early in the product's life, and then to take corrective action as quickly as possible. A wide array of case studies gleaned from leading practitioners of AST supplement the theory and methodology, which will provide the reader with a more concrete idea of how AST truly enhances quality in a reduced time frame. Important topics covered include:
      Theoretical basis for AST
      General AST best practices
      AST design and manufacturing processes
      AST equipment and techniques
      AST process safety qualification In this handbook, AST cases studies demonstrate thermal, vibration, electrical, and liquid stress application; failure mode analysis; and corrective action techniques. Individuals who would be interested in this book include: reliability engineers and researchers, mechanical and electrical engineers, those involved with all facets of electronics and telecommunications product design and manufacturing, and people responsible for implementing quality and process improvement programs. View full abstract»




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