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This paper presents a new 3D reconstruction method of the scoliotic vertebrae of a spine, using two conventional radiographic views (postero-anterior and lateral), and global prior knowledge on the geometrical structure of each vertebra. This geometrical knowledge is efficiently captured by a statistical deformable template integrating a set of admissible deformations, expressed by the first modes of variation in the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of the pathological deformations observed on a representative scoliotic vertebra population. The proposed reconstruction method consists in fitting the projections of this deformable template with the segmented contours of the corresponding vertebra on the two radiographic views. The 3D reconstruction problem is stated as the minimization of a cost function for each vertebra and solved with a gradient descent technique. The reconstruction of the spine is then made vertebra by vertebra. This 3D reconstruction method has been successfully tested on several biplanar radiographic images, yielding very promising results.