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Manufacturing scheduling is an optimization process that allocates limited manufacturing resources over time among parallel and sequential manufacturing activities. This allocation must obey a set of rules or constraints that reflect the temporal relationships between manufacturing activities and the capacity limitations of a set of shared resources. The allocation also affects a schedule's optimality with respect to criteria such as cost, lateness, or throughput. The globalization of manufacturing makes such optimization increasingly important. To survive in this competitive market, manufacturing enterprises must increase their productivity and profitability through greater shop floor agility. Agent-based manufacturing scheduling systems are a promising way to provide this optimization.