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The existence of string functions, which are not polynomial time computable, but whose graph is checkable in polynomial time, is a basic assumption in cryptography. We prove that in the framework of algebraic complexity, there are no such families of polynomial functions of p-bounded degree overfields of characteristic zero. The proof relies on a polynomial upper bound on the approximative complexity of a factor g of a polynomial f in terms of the (approximative) complexity of f and the degree of the factor g. This extends a result by E. Kaltofen (1986). The concept of approximative complexity allows us to cope with the case that a factor has an exponential multiplicity, by using a perturbation argument. Our result extends to randomized (two-sided error) decision complexity.