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Watermarking in the space/spatial-frequency domain using two-dimensional Radon-Wigner distribution

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3 Author(s)
S. Stankovic ; Montenegro Univ., Podgorica, Yugoslavia ; I. Djurovic ; I. Pitas

A two-dimensional (2-D) signal with a variable spatial frequency is proposed as a watermark in the spatial domain. This watermark is characterized by a linear frequency change. It can be efficiently detected by using 2-D space/spatial-frequency distributions. The projections of the 2-D Wigner distribution-the 2-D Radon-Wigner distribution, are used in order to emphasize the watermark detection process. The watermark robustness with respect to some very important image processing attacks, such as for example, the translation, rotation, cropping, JPEG compression, and filtering, is demonstrated and tested by using Stirmark 3.1

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing  (Volume:10 ,  Issue: 4 )