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Summary form only given. The enhancement of the light and matter interaction that can be obtained in periodic structures such as 1D photonic crystals or Fabry-Perot microcavities might be best used when the interaction considered is nonlinear. It has been theoretically shown that changes in the effective index of refraction of a dielectric material leading to large changes in reflection or transmission, can be obtained in a periodic array of layers with a /spl chi//sup (3)/ nonlinearity, or in a microcavity filled with a quadratic nonlinear material. We have considered a 43 /spl mu/m thick KTiOPO/sub 4/ crystal sandwiched between two identical mirrors.