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A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL-driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor

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6 Author(s)
J. Kitching ; Joint Inst. for Lab. Astrophys., Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO, USA ; S. Knappe ; M. Vukicevic ; L. Hollberg
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Dark line resonances, narrowed with a buffer gas to less than 100 Hz width, are observed in a Cs vapor cell using a directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). An external oscillator locked to one of these resonances exhibits a short-term stability of σy(τ)=9.3×10-12/√τ, which drops to 1.6×10-12 at 100 s. A physics package for a frequency-reference based on this design could be compact, low-power, and simple to implement

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IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement  (Volume:49 ,  Issue: 6 )