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Raman lidar calibration for the DMSP SSM/T-2 microwave water vapor sensor

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5 Author(s)
Wessel, John ; Technol. Oper., Aerosp. Corp., El Segundo, CA, USA ; Beck, S.M. ; Chan, Y.C. ; Farley, R.W.
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Campaigns were conducted at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, investigating Raman lidar as a method to improve calibration of the DMSP SSM/T-2 microwave water vapor profiling instrument. Lidar mixing ratios were calibrated against AIR and Vaisala radiosondes and the calibration was tested in the vicinity of clouds. Above 6 km, radiosondes reported anomalously low relative humidity in the vicinity of clouds. Lidar measurements were confirmed by using an electro-optical shutter, which provided correct measurement of relative humidity at cloud bases above 6 km. Radiative transfer calculations applied to the lidar data closely matched signals observed in the SSM/T-2 atmospheric channels. Forward calculations for surface sensitive channels disagreed with SSM/T-2 and SSM/I observations. Fine scale surface roughness and localized orographic drying are tentatively suggested as explanations. Cloud effects were ruled out as a significant source of discrepancy

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:38 ,  Issue: 1 )