By Topic

High-voltage-tolerant I/O buffers with low-voltage CMOS process

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
Singh, G.P. ; Sun Microsyst. Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA ; Salem, R.B.

This paper presents high-voltage-tolerant I/O buffer designs for a 1.9-V external cache interface and a 3.3-V system interface using 1.9-V MOS transistors in a 0.21-μm process with 40-Å gate-oxide thickness. Various circuit techniques are used for 1.9- and 3.3-V I/O buffers to ensure that the voltage across the gate oxide of every MOS element is below specified limits of 2.2 V for transient (short duty cycle) and 1.9 V for steady state. Only one PMOS pullup driver transistor between the bond pad and the power supply, and one NMOS pulldown driver transistor between the bond pad and ground, are used for the 1.9-V I/O buffer design, while cascoded MOS transistors between the bond pad and power supply or ground terminals are used for the 3.3-V I/O buffer design. The primary design goal is to ensure the reliability of MOS elements by avoiding excessive gate oxide stress due to high electric fields. However, due to differences in requirements for speed, power-supply voltage, and tristate leakage current, completely different circuit techniques have been used for the two designs. Both of the designs have been successfully implemented in a 400-MHz UltraSPARC microprocessor

Published in:

Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:34 ,  Issue: 11 )