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Micro-architectural techniques of the next decade will have to be more efficient and scalable in order to handle growing workloads and longer communication and memory latencies. We believe that information about program structure, the data and control relationships between instructions, can be used as a powelful framework for new techniques. We argue that program structure information has several inherent advantages over frameworks that associate information either with instructions in isolation or with data. We present summaries of four novel methods that apply program structure information to memory system problems from disambiguation and data cache bandwdith to. prefetching and coherence optimization.