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Common-acoustical-pole and zero modeling of head-related transfer functions

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4 Author(s)
Haneda, Y. ; NTT Human Interface Labs., Tokyo, Japan ; Makino, S. ; Kaneda, Y. ; Kitawaki, N.

Use of a common-acoustical-pole and zero model is proposed for modeling head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) for various directions of sound incidence. The HRTFs are expressed using the common acoustical poles, which do not depend on the source directions, and the zeros, which do. The common acoustical poles are estimated as they are common to HRTFs for various source directions; the estimated values of the poles agree well with the resonance frequencies of the ear canal. Because this model uses only the zeros to express the HRTF variations due to changes in source direction, it requires fewer parameters (the order of the zeros) that depend on the source direction than do the conventional all-zero or pole/zero models. Furthermore, the proposed model can extract the zeros that are missed in the conventional models because of pole-zero cancellation. As a result, the directional dependence of the zeros can be traced well. Analysis of the zeros for HRTFs on the horizontal plane showed that the nonminimum-phase zero variation was well formulated using a simple pinna-reflection model. The common-acoustical-pole and zero (CAPZ) model is thus effective for modeling and analyzing HRTF's

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Speech and Audio Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:7 ,  Issue: 2 )