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Semantic virtual organizations (VOs) help to discriminatively distribute resource information and queries to related nodes, thus reducing the search space and improving scalability. This chapter proposes a semantics-based searching mechanism, OntoSum, in order to further improve the efficiency of searching the virtual organizations. A section provides a general overview of related work in resource discovery in grids, and another describes the approach to the construction of semantic VOs. This is followed by a presentation on OntoSum, a framework for semantic resource discovery in virtual organizations. The implementation of a prototype system is discussed, and finally, the authors' conclusions, discussion of limitations, and suggestions for future work are presented.