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A number of factors have led to a resurgence of myoelectric control research since the early 2000s. First, low-power electronics have developed to the point where multichannel pattern recognition algorithms can readily be implemented on an embedded system. Second, due to a large number of high-level amputees resulting from recent military conflicts, governments have initiated well-funded programs to improve neural interfaces for prosthetics. Finally, new and innovative neural - machine interfaces, such as targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR), have been developed to provide a rich source of neural information from which control signals can be derived. This chapter provides an overview of existing myoelectric control strategies, highlighting the benefits and limitations of both conventional and pattern recognition techniques, and TMR. The chapter concludes with a summary of exciting emerging technologies that have the potential to further enhance the field of myoelectric control.