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The electroencephalogram (EEG) provides a noninvasive way to record and analyze brain functions in real time. For brain - computer interfaces (BCIs), slow waves, evoked potentials, and activation in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands are used. When a real-time biosignal processing system is confi gured, several influencing components have to be considered. This chapter discusses EEG electrodes and electrode placement, lists possible sources of noise and artifacts, and explains how to avoid them. It explains the properties of biosignal amplifiers and analog-to-digital conversion. It also discusses possibilities for host computers and processing environments. Finally, examples of brain - computer interface (BCI) systems are given for rehabilitation and for brain mapping.