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Damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems is associated with a loss of motor drive and a defective afferent input to the central nervous system (CNS). This chapter starts with a presentation of neuron injury. The injuries are categorized based on the extent and type of damage to the nerve and the surrounding connective tissue. The chapter addresses sensory - motor deficits that are caused by neuron injury or disease: (a) cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke, which causes impairments due to changes in blood supply to the brain; (b) spinal cord injuries (SCIs), which result in total or partial obstruction of flow of both sensory and motor information between the peripheral and central nervous systems; (c) nontraumatic disorders of the CNS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis); and (d) cerebral palsy (CP). Finally, the chapter presents the incidence of CNS diseases.