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In this chapter, selected published articles pertaining to micro- and nanotechnologies for bone tissue engineering are reviewed with a focus on development of scaffolds. Nanoparticles and nanofibers have shown to improve the mechanical properties of biodegradable polymeric implants. Non-union bone fractures are a major health care concern in the United States. One of the most widely used strategies in bone tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds for temporary structural support. Scaffolds are porous biomaterials and play a central role in tissue engineering approaches by guiding cell proliferation and assisting the exchange of nutrients and waste. Scaffolds made with micro- and nanoparticles and micro- and nanofibers show much promise as they impart the ability to create scaffolds with appropriate mechanical properties and microenvironment. The chapter discusses micro/nanomaterials of hydroxyapatite, a variety of synthetic polymers, and silk, and their potential for use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds.