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Spectrum and power efficiencies are both crucial to design efficient wireless networks. In past two decades, spectrum and power efficiencies of wireless networks are optimized separately. However, to increase the spectrum efficiency while reducing the energy consumption, it is necessary to jointly optimize spectrum and power efficiencies of wireless networks. Supporting the statistical quality of service (QoS) provisionings for real-time traffic is crucial, but imposes new challenges, in the next generation wireless networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient framework to jointly optimize effective spectrum efficiency (ESE) and effective power efficiency (EPE) under different statistical QoS guarantees constraints to support the real-time traffic over wireless networks. In particular, we derive the relationship between ESE and EPE under statistical QoS provisioning constraint. Based on this relationship, we obtain the mutually beneficial (MB) region and the contention-based (CB) region. In the MB region, we propose a novel strategy to achieve the joint effective spectrum and power efficiencies optimization using the average transmit power control. In the CB region, we propose the wireless-relay-based strategy to jointly optimize the effective capacity and power efficiency. In both MB and CB regions, we develop the dynamic transmit-power control strategy and the MIMO-based strategy to jointly maximize the effective spectrum and power efficiencies. Also conducted is a set of numerical evaluations showing that our proposed strategies can achieve superior joint spectrum and power efficiencies optimization for the diverse statistical QoS provisionings.