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Circuit-Level Design, Implementation, and Verification

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2 Author(s)

This chapter gives some design issues and practical recipes to complete the design flow of modulator. It deals with macromodel implementation of Ms as an essential design stage to relate behavioral-level models with circuit-level description. Then, it describes how to include circuit noise in electrical-level simulations of Ms, and shows how to process the modulator output data extracted from electrical simulations in SPICE-like simulators, in order to characterize the performance of Ms. Next, the chapter moves down to the transistor-level implementation, giving a number of practical design guidelines and describing diverse simulation test benches to properly design and characterize the performance of basic building blocks (CMOS Switches, operational amplifiers, transconductors, comparators, and current-steering DACs). Other auxiliary circuits needed to implement Ms are also discussed. Finally, the chapter deals with some of the most important design issues related to the layout, prototyping, and testing of high-performance Ms.