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A mm-Sized Wirelessly Powered and Remotely Controlled Locomotive Implant

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4 Author(s)
Pivonka, D. ; Electr. Eng. Dept., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, USA ; Yakovlev, A. ; Poon, A.S.Y. ; Meng, T.

A wirelessly powered and controlled implantable device capable of locomotion in a fluid medium is presented. Two scalable low-power propulsion methods are described that achieve roughly an order of magnitude better performance than existing methods in terms of thrust conversion efficiency. The wireless prototype occupies 0.6 mm × 1 mm in 65 nm CMOS with an external 2 mm × 2 mm receive antenna. The IC consists of a matching network, a rectifier, a bandgap reference, a regulator, a demodulator, a digital controller, and high-current drivers that interface directly with the propulsion system. It receives 500 μW from a 2 W 1.86 GHz power signal at a distance of 5 cm. Asynchronous pulse-width modulation on the carrier allows for data rates from 2.5-25 Mbps with energy efficiency of 0.5 pJ/b at 10 Mbps. The received data configures the propulsion system drivers, which are capable of driving up to 2 mA at 0.2 V and can achieve speed of 0.53 cm/sec in a 0.06 T magnetic field.

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Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:6 ,  Issue: 6 )