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In wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), visual correlation exists among multiple nearby cameras, thus leading to considerable redundancy in the collected images. This paper proposes a differential coding-based scheduling framework for efficiently gathering visually correlated images. This framework consists of two components including MinMax Degree Hub Location (MDHL) and Maximum Lifetime Scheduling (MLS). The MDHL problem aims to find the optimal locations for the multimedia processing hubs, which operate on different channels for concurrently collecting images from adjacent cameras, such that the number of channels required for frequency reuse is minimized. After associating camera sensors with proper hubs, the MLS problem targets at designing a schedule for the cameras such that the network lifetime of the cameras is maximized by letting highly correlated cameras perform differential coding on the fly. It is proven in this paper that the MDHL problem is NP-complete, and the MLS problem is NP-hard. Consequently, approximation algorithms are proposed to provide bounded performance. Since the designed algorithms only take the camera settings as inputs, they are independent of specific multimedia applications. Experiments and simulations show that the proposed differential coding-based scheduling can effectively enhance the network throughput and the energy efficiency of camera sensors.