By Topic

Some aspects of the charge and discharge processes in lead-acid storage batteries

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
D. Norman Craig ; National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. ; J. Walter Hamer

THE equilibrium relations of lead-acid storage batteries have been extensively studied. The double-sulfate theory proposed by Gladstone and Tribe1 has been substantiated by analytical methods,2 thermodynamic studies,3 and electromotive force measurements of galvanic cells simulating the charged state of the electrochemical system.4 It is well recognized that on discharge one equivalent each of lead dioxide and lead and two equivalents of sulfuric acid are consumed and that two equivalents of lead sulfate and two equivalents of water are formed per faraday. It is known that the reverse occurs on charge and that the lead-acid storage battery may be subjected to many cycles of charge and discharge. The battery is reversible in that chemical and electric energy may be interconverted in repeated cycles. In practice, reversibility in the thermodynamic sense is not completely realized and the voltage during discharge is somewhat lower than the reversible electromotive force. Likewise the charging voltage is correspondingly higher. The more rapid the charging and discharging the greater is the deviation from thermodynamic reversibility and the greater is the loss in energy efficiency.

Published in:

Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Part II: Applications and Industry  (Volume:73 ,  Issue: 1 )