Skip to Main Content
A 1 k-pixel camera chip for active terahertz video recording at room-temperature has been fully integrated in a 65-nm CMOS bulk process technology. The 32 × 32 pixel array consists of 1024 differential on-chip ring antennas coupled to NMOS direct detectors operated well-beyond their cutoff frequency based on the principle of distributed resistive self-mixing. It includes row and column select and integrate-and-dump circuitry capable of capturing terahertz videos up to 500 fps. The camera chip has been packaged together with a 41.7-dBi silicon lens (measured at 856 GHz) in a 5 × 5 × 3 cm3 camera module. It is designed for continuous-wave illumination (no lock-in technique required). In this video-mode the camera operates up to 500 fps. At 856 GHz it achieves a responsivity Rv of about 115 kV/W (incl. a 5-dB VGA gain) and a total noise equivalent power (NEPtotal) of about 12 nW integrated over its 500-kHz video bandwidth. At a 5-kHz chopping frequency (non-video mode) a single pixel can provide a maximum responsivity Rv of 140 kV/W (incl. a 5-dB VGA gain) and a minimum noise equivalent power ( NEP) of 100 pW/√Hz at 856 GHz. The wide-band antenna and pixel design achieves a 3-dB bandwidth of at least 790-960 GHz.