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Corporate research centers, universities, power equipment vendors, end users, and other market participants around the world are beginning to explore and consider the use of dc in future transmission and distribution system applications. Recent developments and trends in electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of dc-based power and constant power loads. In addition, growth in renewable energy resources requires dc interfaces for optimal integration. A strong case is being made for intermeshed ac and dc networks, with new concepts emerging at the medium-voltage (MV) level for MV dc infrastructure developments.