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A novel method to obtain the formulations of the return signals in the 2-D frequency domain for both monostatic and bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is proposed. In this study, the squinted effective wavelength (SEW) is firstly used, so that the 2-D spectrums can be derived directly from their imaging geometries. For monostatic SAR (MoSAR), the 2-D spectrum is obtained without a lengthy derivation by using the widely-used principle of stationary phase. For the bistatic SAR (BiSAR), based on the assumption that the azimuth time durations of the transmitter and the receiver are the same, two individual SEWs can be derived, as well as the 2-D spectrums that are both concise and of high accuracy. Then, two modified omega-K algorithms based on the two 2-D spectrums are developed to process MoSAR and translational-invariant BiSAR data. Furthermore, as important processing steps of the proposed omega-K algorithms, a modified reference function multiplication and a modified Stolt mapping, which are much more suitable for SAR data processing than the conventional ones, are proposed. Simulations under a wide range of MoSAR and BiSAR system parameters are conducted. Finally, the proposed algorithms are applied to the analysis of acquired data and the results confirm not only the validity of the derived 2-D spectrums for both MoSAR and BiSAR but also the effectiveness of the proposed method.