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A CMOS image sensor architecture with built-in single-shot compressed sensing is described. The image sensor employs a conventional 4-T pixel and per-column ΣΔ ADCs. The compressed sensing measurements are obtained via a column multiplexer that sequentially applies randomly selected pixel values to the input of each ΣΔ modulator. At the end of readout, each ADC outputs a quantized value of the average of the pixel values applied to its input. The image is recovered from the random linear measurements off-chip using numerical optimization algorithms. To demonstrate this architecture, a 256x256 pixel CMOS image sensor is fabricated in 0.15 μm CIS process. The sensor can operate in compressed sensing mode with compression ratio 1/4, 1/8, or 1/16 at 480, 960, or 1920 fps, respectively, or in normal capture mode with no compressed sensing at a maximum frame rate of 120 fps. Measurement results demonstrate capture in compressed sensing mode at roughly the same readout noise of 351 μVrms and power consumption of 96.2 mW of normal capture at 120 fps. This performance is achieved with only 1.8% die area overhead. Image reconstruction shows modest quality loss relative to normal capture and significantly higher image quality than downsampling.