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Many imaging algorithms for different modes, such as, stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR), spotlight SAR, sliding spotlight SAR, and terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS) SAR, of SAR have been studied. This paper is to obtain a unified focusing algorithm (UFA) for these SAR modes based on fractional Fourier transform. By defining the rotation-center range, the stripmap SAR and spotlight SAR can be treated as special cases of sliding spotlight SAR or TOPS SAR. Then, a parameterized focusing algorithm determined by the rotation-center range is presented. Data of each mode can be focused by utilizing UFA and selecting parameters or rotation angles. Some application aspects of UFA are also analyzed. Simulation and real data results are presented to validate the analysis and the proposed method.