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A four-scale bidirectional reflectance model based on canopy architecture

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2 Author(s)
Chen, J.M. ; Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ont., Canada ; Leblanc, S.G.

Open boreal forests present a challenge in understanding remote sensing signals acquired with various solar and view geometries. Much research is needed to improve our ability to model the bidirectional reflectance distribution (BRD) for retrieving the surface information using measurements at a few angles. The geometric-optical bidirectional reflectance model presented in this paper considers four scales of canopy architecture: tree groups, tree crowns, branches and shoots. It differs from the Li-Strahler's model in the following respects: 1) the assumption of random spatial distribution of trees is replated by the Neyman distribution which is able to model the patchiness or clumpiness of a forest stand; 2) the multiple mutual shadowing effect between tree crowns is considered using a negative binomial and the Neyman distribution theory; 3) the effect of the sunlit background is modeled using a canopy gap size distribution function that affects the magnitude and width of the hotspot; 4) the branch architecture affecting the directional reflectance is simulated using a simple angular radiation penetration function; and 5) the tree crown surface is treated as a complex surface with microscale structures which themselves generate mutual shadows and a hotspot. All these scales of canopy architecture are shown to have effects on the directional distribution of the reflected radiance from conifer forests. The model results compare well with a data set from a boreal spruce forest

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:35 ,  Issue: 5 )