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We rigorously establish a close relationship between message passing algorithms and models of neurodynamics by showing that the equations of a continuous Hopfield network can be derived from the equations of belief propagation on a binary Markov random field. As Hopfield networks are equipped with a Lyapunov function, convergence is guaranteed. As a consequence, in the limit of many weak connections per neuron, Hopfield networks exactly implement a continuous-time variant of belief propagation starting from message initialisations that prevent from running into convergence problems. Our results lead to a better understanding of the role of message passing algorithms in real biological neural networks.