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In this paper, a multi-agent computational model is proposed to simulate the coevolution of social structure and compositional protolanguage from a holistic signaling system through iterative interactions within a heterogeneous population. We implement an indirect meaning transference based on both linguistic and nonlinguistic information in communications, together with a feedback without direct meaning check. The emergent social structure, triggered by two locally selective strategies, friendship and popularity, has small-world characteristics. The influence of these selective strategies on the emergent language and the emergent social structure are discussed.