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4 Author(s)

The problem of achieving open-ended evolution in complex systems is studied in this paper. We propose various techniques that support it. and present a gradual approach. These techniques are used and tested in the Framsticks system. which is a realistic, three-dimensional artificial life simulator ith rich capabilities. Specifically, as there are no strong constraints imposed on the structure (body) and control (neural network brain), this system is suitable for testing open-endedness. In Framsticks. energetic requirements form the basis for competition. while interactions occurring on various levels act as a source of complexity and variation. The way towards open-ended evolution is discussed, developmental genotype encodings are proposed, arid the results of so-far experiments are presented