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Energy-Efficient Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

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3 Author(s)
Pantazis, N.A. ; Dept. of Electron. Eng., Technol. Educ. Inst. (TEI) of Athens, Athens, Greece ; Nikolidakis, S.A. ; Vergados, D.D.

The distributed nature and dynamic topology of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) introduces very special requirements in routing protocols that should be met. The most important feature of a routing protocol, in order to be efficient for WSNs, is the energy consumption and the extension of the network's lifetime. During the recent years, many energy efficient routing protocols have been proposed for WSNs. In this paper, energy efficient routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: Network Structure, Communication Model, Topology Based and Reliable Routing. The routing protocols belonging to the first category can be further classified as flat or hierarchical. The routing protocols belonging to the second category can be further classified as Query-based or Coherent and non-coherent-based or Negotiation-based. The routing protocols belonging to the third category can be further classified as Location-based or Mobile Agent-based. The routing protocols belonging to the fourth category can be further classified as QoS-based or Multipath-based. Then, an analytical survey on energy efficient routing protocols for WSNs is provided. In this paper, the classification initially proposed by Al-Karaki, is expanded, in order to enhance all the proposed papers since 2004 and to better describe which issues/operations in each protocol illustrate/enhance the energy-efficiency issues.

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Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE  (Volume:15 ,  Issue: 2 )