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One of the uses of sensor arrays is for spatial filtering or beamforming. Current digital signal processing methods facilitate complex-weighted beamforming, providing flexibility in array design. Previous studies proposed the use of real-valued beamforming weights, which although reduce flexibility in design, may provide a range of benefits, e.g., simplified beamformer implementation or efficient beamforming algorithms. This paper presents a new method for the design of arrays with real-valued weights, that achieve maximum directivity, providing closed-form solution to array weights. The method is studied for linear and spherical arrays, where it is shown that rigid spherical arrays are particularly suitable for real-weight designs as they do not suffer from grating lobes, a dominant feature in linear arrays with real weights. A simulation study is presented for linear and spherical arrays, along with an experimental investigation, validating the theoretical developments.
Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:20 , Issue: 9 )
Date of Publication: Nov. 2012