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A reflection-type electro-optic phase diffraction grating using the novel transparent lead magnesium niobate-lead titanite (PMNT) electro-optic ceramic is analyzed theoretically and implemented experimentally. The Au/Ti interdigital electrodes are sputtered on one surface of ceramic wafer which is used to change the material refractive index by the quadratic electro-optic effect. The phase modulation characteristic and the optical beam diffraction patterns induced by a controllable electric field are analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically. Using a high electro-optic coefficient transparent PMNT ceramic wafer, some experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis and they are accordant very well. Finally, some potential applications for the reflection-type electro-optic phase diffraction grating in the ultrafast laser application areas are also discussed in this paper.