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SyRaFa: Synchronous Rate and Frequency Adjustment for Utilization Control in Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

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3 Author(s)
Xi Chen ; McGill University, Montreal ; Xiao-Wen Chang ; Xue Liu

To efficiently utilize the computing resources and provide good quality of service (QoS) to the end-to-end tasks in the distributed real-time systems, we can enforce the utilization bounds on multiple processors. The utilization control is challenging especially when the workload in the system is unpredictable. To handle the workload uncertainties, current research favors feedback control techniques, and recent work combines the task rate adaptation and processor frequency scaling in an asynchronous way for CPU utilization control, where task rates and the processor frequencies are tuned asynchronously in two decoupled control loops for control convenience. Since the two manipulated variables, task rates and processor frequencies, contribute to the CPU utilizations together with strong coupling, adjusting them asynchronously may degrade the utilization control performance. In this paper, we provide a novel scheme to make synchronous rate and frequency adjustment to enforce the utilization setpoint, referred to as SyRaFa scheme. SyRaFa can handle the workload uncertainties by identifying the system model online and can simultaneously adjust the manipulated variables by solving an optimization problem in each sampling period. Extensive evaluation results demonstrate SyRaFa outperforms the existing schemes especially under severe workload uncertainties.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 5 )