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This paper presents some experimental results obtained with newly developed stepped-frequency continuous wave (SFCW) ground-penetrating radar in a frequency range from 400 to 4845 MHz. This paper describes the procedures to remove the delays within the transmitter, the receiver, and the antenna system and analyzes the experimental results obtained after processing the measured data. The measured system footprint and the experimental results show that using an ultrawideband (UWB) Archimedean spiral antenna decreases the coupling signal but does not provide the needed cross-range resolution. Based on the measured dimensions of the footprint, a synthetic aperture procedure is used to improve the radar cross-range resolution from around 60 cm to about 6 cm. This paper shows the ability of the radar to detect dielectric objects and to exhibit their shape as it works with circularly polarized waves. What makes this paper different from prior work, which presents some experiments using a vector network analyzer set up to work as an SFCW radar, is that the data were acquired with a real system working with circular polarization and using two UWB Archimedean spirals. The calibration procedures as well as the synthetic aperture procedure were developed and validated based on measured data with the SFCW radar.
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:51 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: Jan. 2013