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Optimal public transport fares theory can be traced back to the Cournot's optimal price theory, so based on the Cournot's theory firstly, profit maximizing price, price discrimination, and welfare maximizing price were introduced respectively. Secondly, according to the process of the theory development, optimal price theory used in urban road pricing theory was introduced. And then optimal road pricing model was analyzed which concern on congestion, traffic emission, energy consumption, etc. Finally, the foundation and the development of optimal public transport fare theory was introduced.