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Two gated ring oscillators (GROs) act as the delay lines in an improved Vernier time-to-digital converter (TDC), where the already small quantization noise of the standard Vernier TDC is further first-order shaped by the GRO operation. The TDC has been implemented in a 90 nm CMOS process and consumes 3 mA from 1.2 V when operating at 25 MHz. The native Vernier resolution of the TDC is 5.8 ps, while the total noise integrated over a bandwidth of 800 kHz yields an equivalent TDC resolution of 3.2 ps.
Date of Publication: July 2012