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An increasingly common scenario in building speech synthesis and recognition systems is training on inhomogeneous data. This paper proposes a new framework for estimating hidden Markov models on data containing both multiple speakers and multiple languages. The proposed framework, speaker and language factorization, attempts to factorize speaker-/language-specific characteristics in the data and then model them using separate transforms. Language-specific factors in the data are represented by transforms based on cluster mean interpolation with cluster-dependent decision trees. Acoustic variations caused by speaker characteristics are handled by transforms based on constrained maximum-likelihood linear regression. Experimental results on statistical parametric speech synthesis show that the proposed framework enables data from multiple speakers in different languages to be used to: train a synthesis system; synthesize speech in a language using speaker characteristics estimated in a different language; and adapt to a new language.
Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:20 , Issue: 6 )
Date of Publication: Aug. 2012