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It is critical to set up a precise and feasible monitoring system for a variety of animal and human studies. A multichannel wireless system for monitoring physiological signals of freely moving rats is presented. This system combines electroencephalogram (EEG) and acceleration signals, enabling the study of association between brain and behavior. A combination of EEG and accelerometers eliminates the necessity for complicated video installation as well as time-consuming and tedious analysis of recorded videos. The IEEE 802.15.4 based wireless communication frees the experimental subject from the hassle of wires and reduces wire artifacts during recording. Long-period continuous recording was possible because of the low power feature of the system. Methods for automatic wake-sleep state discrimination and temporal lobe epileptic seizure detection are also proposed to demonstrate the advantages of the system. An accuracy of up to 96.22% for the automatic discrimination of wake-sleep states is an advantage of our system. In addition, the detection of amygdala-kindling temporal lobe seizures reaches 100% with zero false alarms, greatly saving manpower in the identification of temporal lobe epilepsy.