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Adaptive Beamforming Applied to a Cylindrical Sonar Array Using an Interpolated Array Transformation

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3 Author(s)
Ann Elisabeth Albright Blomberg ; Digital Signal Processing and Image Analysis group, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway ; Andreas Austeng ; Roy Edgar Hansen

In applications such as fishery sonar and navigation, cylindrical or spherical arrays are often used because of the need for a 360° field of view. However, adaptive beamforming methods, known for their high angular resolution and interference rejection capabilities, often rely on a Vandermonde structure of the steering vectors. This is generally not the case for nonlinear arrays. In this paper, we use an interpolated array transformation to map the data to a virtual linear array before adaptive beamforming. We evaluate the performance of two different adaptive beam- formers using simulations as well as experimental data from the SX90 fish finding sonar. We show that the adaptive minimum variance (MV) and amplitude and phase estimation of a sinusoid (APES) beamformers offer a significant improvement in azimuth resolution compared to the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer. The APES beamformer offers slightly more reliable amplitude estimates in the direction of interest compared to the MV beamformer, at the cost of a somewhat lower azimuth resolution. When applied to data from the SX90 fish finding sonar, the MV beamformer offers a 40%-50% improvement in resolution, while the APES beamformer offers an improvement of 20%-30%.

Published in:

IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering  (Volume:37 ,  Issue: 1 )