Notification:
We are currently experiencing intermittent issues impacting performance. We apologize for the inconvenience.
By Topic

Introduction and Early Use of Computers in the Finnish Retail Industry

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
Valorinta, M. ; Capgemini, Finland ; Nokelainen, T.

The retail industry in Finland was at the national forefront in terms of computer adoption shortly after the Second World War. Analyzing the societal, organizational, and industry-specific preconditions and the drivers for this early adoption, both at industrial and organizational levels, helps illustrate how this development unfolded inside the four major retailing organizations in Finland from the 1950s to the late 1970s.

Published in:

Annals of the History of Computing, IEEE  (Volume:33 ,  Issue: 4 )