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Adopting “simultaneous transmitting, simultaneous receiving” operational scheme, instantaneous polarization radar (IPR) can measure target polarization scattering matrix (PSM) using only once target echoes in two orthogonal polarization channels. Firstly, signal model and signal process are advanced under narrowband condition. Secondly, measurement performances of two typical IPR waveforms are analyzed in detail. At last, field experiments are carried out using X-band I PR system designed by National University of Defense Technology (NUDT), China. Compared with results obtained by alternative polarization measurement scheme, following results can be obtained: the difference of relative amplitude measurement results is smaller than 2 dB and that of relative phase measurement results is smaller than 10°, verifying the validity of instantaneous polarization measurement scheme.